Solar Radiation–The Estimation of the Optimum Tilt Angles for South-Facing Surfaces in Pristina
Xhevat BerishaDrilon Meha


Solar energy is derived from photons of light coming from the sun in a form called radiation. Solar energy finds extensive application in air and water heating, solar cooking, as well as electrical power generation, depending on the way of capturing, converting and distribution. To enable such application, it is necessary to analyze the horizontal tilt angle of horizontal surfaces – in order that when the solar energy reaches the earth surface to be completely absorbed. This paper tends to describe the availability of solar radiation for south-facing flat surfaces. The optimal monthly, seasonal, and annual tilt angles have been estimated for Pristina. The solar radiation received by the incident plane is estimated based on isotropic sky analysis models, namely Liu and Jordan model. The annual optimum tilt angle for Pristina was found to be 34.7°. The determination of annual solar energy gains is done by applying the optimal monthly, seasonal and annual tilt angles for an inclined surface compared to a horizontal surface. Monthly, seasonal and annual percentages of solar energy gains have been estimated to be 21.35%, 19.98%, and 14.43%. Losses of solar energy were estimated by 1.13 % when a surface was fixed at a seasonal optimu...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Glut1 Deficiency

Glut1 deficiency, an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier, is characterized by mental and motor developmental delays and infantile seizures. Follow the latest research on Glut1 deficiency with this feed.

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is a type of anxiety disorder that involves excessive distress and anxiety with separation. This may include separation from places or people to which they have a strong emotional connection with. It often affects children more than adults. Here is the latest research on separation anxiety.

KIF1A Associated Neurological Disorder

KIF1A associated neurological disorder (KAND) is a rare neurodegenerative condition caused by mutations in the KIF1A gene. KAND may present with a wide range and severity of symptoms including stiff or weak leg muscles, low muscle tone, a lack of muscle coordination and balance, and intellectual disability. Find the latest research on KAND here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.

Related Papers

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mehmet H SonmeteFatih Evrendilek
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP
Victor GrayKasper Moth-Poulsen
Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences : Official Journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology
Stefano Protti, Maurizio Fagnoni
J A Duffie, W A Beckman
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved