Spatial variation of salt intake in Britain and association with socioeconomic status

BMJ Open
Chen JiFrancesco P Cappuccio


To evaluate spatial effects of variation and social determinants of salt intake in Britain. Cross-sectional survey. Great Britain. 2105 white male and female participants, aged 19-64 years, from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000-2001. Participants' sodium intake measured both with a 7-day dietary record and a 24-h urine collection. By accounting for important linear and non-linear risk factors and spatial effects, the geographical difference and spatial patterns of both dietary sodium intake and 24-h urinary sodium were investigated using Bayesian geo-additive models via Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations. A significant north-south pattern of sodium intake was found from posterior probability maps after controlling for important sociodemographic factors. Participants living in Scotland had a significantly higher dietary sodium intake and 24-h urinary sodium levels. Significantly higher sodium intake was also found in people with the lowest educational attainment (dietary sodium: coeff. 0.157 (90% credible intervals 0.003, 0.319), urinary sodium: 0.149 (0.024, 0.281)) and in manual occupations (urinary sodium: 0.083 (0.004, 0.160)). These coefficients indicate approximately a 5%, 9% and 4% difference in avera...Continue Reading


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