Spatiotemporal precision and hemodynamic mechanism of optical point spreads in alert primates.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yevgeniy B SirotinAniruddha Das

Abstract

In functional brain imaging there is controversy over which hemodynamic signal best represents neural activity. Intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISOI) suggests that the best signal is the early darkening observed at wavelengths absorbed preferentially by deoxyhemoglobin (HbR). It is assumed that this darkening or "initial dip" reports local conversion of oxyhemoglobin (HbO) to HbR, i.e., oxygen consumption caused by local neural activity, thus giving the most specific measure of such activity. The blood volume signal, by contrast, is believed to be more delayed and less specific. Here, we used multiwavelength ISOI to simultaneously map oxygenation and blood volume [i.e., total hemoglobin (HbT)] in primary visual cortex (V1) of the alert macaque. We found that the hemodynamic "point spread," i.e., impulse response to a minimal visual stimulus, was as rapid and retinotopically specific when imaged by using blood volume as when using the initial dip. Quantitative separation of the imaged signal into HbR, HbO, and HbT showed, moreover, that the initial dip was dominated by a fast local increase in HbT, with no increase in HbR. We found only a delayed HbR decrease that was broader in retinotopic spread than HbO or HbT. Further, we ...Continue Reading

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