The properties and sources of all known class-I, class-II and class-III restriction endonucleases (ENases) and DNA modification methyltransferases (MTases) are listed and newly subclassified according to their sequence specificity. In addition, the enzymes are distinguished in a novel manner according to sequence specificity, cleavage position and methylation sensitivity. Furthermore, new nomenclature rules are proposed for unambiguously defined enzyme names. In the various Tables, the enzymes are cross-indexed alphabetically according to their names (Table I), classified according to their recognition sequence homologies (Table II), and characterized within Table II by the cleavage and methylation positions, the number of recognition sites on the DNA of the bacteriophages lambda, phi X174, and M13mp7, the viruses Ad2 and SV40, the plasmids pBR322 and pBR328, and the microorganisms from which they originate. Other tabulated properties of the ENases include relaxed specificities (integrated within Table II), the structure of the generated fragment ends (Table III), interconversion of restriction sites (Table IV) and the sensitivity to different kinds of DNA methylation (Table V). Table VI shows the influence of class-II MTases o...Continue Reading
Restriction and modification in B. subtilis. Purification and general properties of a restriction endonuclease from strain R
Complementary specificity of restriction endonucleases of Diplococcus pneumoniae with respect to DNA methylation
pMG7-mediated restriction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage DNAs is determined by a class II restriction endonuclease
Cae I: an endonuclease isolated from the African green monkey with properties indicating site-specific cleavage of homologous and heterologous mammalian DNA
DNA modifying enzymes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: effect of DNA topoisomerase, restriction endonuclease, and unique DNA endonuclease on plasmid and plant DNA
Restriction and modification in Bacillus subtilis. Localization of the methylated nucleotide in the BsuRI recognition sequence
Cloning of restriction and modification genes in E. coli: the HbaII system from Haemophilus haemolyticus
Nucleotide sequence of the recognition site for the restriction-modification enzyme of Escherichia coli B
Sequence specificity of the P1 modification methylase (M.Eco P1) and the DNA methylase (M.Eco dam) controlled by the Escherichia coli dam gene
In vitro methylation of bacteriophage lambda DNA by wild type (dam+) and mutant (damh) forms of the phage T2 DNA adenine methylase
Purification, properties and specificity of the restriction endonuclease from Bacillus stearothermophilus
Sequence specificity of the wild-type dam+) and mutant (damh) forms of bacteriophage T2 DNA adenine methylase
In vivo methylation by Escherichia coli K-12 mec+ deoxyribonucleic acid-cytosine methylase protects against in vitro cleavage by the RII restriction endonuclease (R. Eco RII).
Restriction and modification in B. subtilis. Nucleotide sequence recognised by restriction endonuclease R. Bsu R from strain R
A site-specific endodeoxyribonuclease from Streptomyces albus CMI 52766 sharing site-specificity with Providencia stuartii endonuclease PstI
The mapping and sequence determination of the single site in phiX174am3 replicative form DNA cleaved by restriction endonuclease Pst I
Alw26I, Eco31I and Esp3I--type IIs methyltransferases modifying cytosine and adenine in complementary strands of the target DNA
Esp3I--a novel type IIs restriction endonuclease from Hafnia alvei that recognizes the sequence 5'-CGTCTC(N)1/5-3'
AspI, a novel isoschizomer of Tth111I [corrected] from Achromobacter species 699 recognizing 5'-GACN/NNGTC-3'
McrI: a novel class-II restriction endonuclease from Micrococcus cryophilus recognizing 5'-CGRY/CG-3'
Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry (NC-IUB). Nomenclature for incompletely specified bases in nucleic acid sequences. Recommendations 1984
Effect of cytosine methylation on the cleavage of oligonucleotide duplexes with restriction endonucleases HpaII and MspI
Effect of site-specific methylation on DNA modification methyltransferases and restriction endonucleases
Nucleotide sequence of the FokI restriction-modification system: separate strand-specificity domains in the methyltransferase
IL-3A virus infection of a Chlorella-like green alga induces a DNA restriction endonuclease with novel sequence specificity
High level expression of the EcoP1 modification methylase gene and characterisation of the gene product
Cleavage of methylated CCCGGG sequences containing either N4-methylcytosine or 5-methylcytosine with MspI, HpaII, SmaI, XmaI and Cfr9I restriction endonucleases
Cleavage by the restriction endonuclease Asp718, an isoschizomer of KpnI, is sensitive to Escherichia coli Dcm methylation
Cloning of two type II methylase genes that recognise asymmetric nucleotide sequences: FokI and HgaI
Widespread occurrence of the restriction endonuclease YenI, an isoschizomer of PstI, in Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O8.
Mse I, a unique restriction endonuclease from Micrococcus species which recognizes 5' T decreases TAA 3'
Cloning and complete nucleotide sequences of the type II restriction-modification genes of Salmonella infantis
Type III DNA restriction and modification systems EcoP1 and EcoP15. Nucleotide sequence of the EcoP1 operon, the EcoP15 mod gene and some EcoP1 mod mutants
BsrI, a unique restriction endonuclease from Bacillus stearothermophilus which recognizes 5' ACTGG3'
Isolation and characterization of restriction endonuclease BstYI from Bacillus stearothermophilus Y406
AsnI: a novel class II restriction endonuclease from Arthrobacter sp., strain N-CM, recognizing 5'-AT/TAAT-3'
Conferring new specificity upon restriction endonucleases by combining repressor-operator interaction and methylation
A novel mcrB-based Escherichia coli K-12 vector system and its use in analyzing the genetic determinants for the McrB nuclease
The effect of site-specific DNA methylation on restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases--a review
Regulated expression of endonuclease EcoRI in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: nuclear entry and biological consequences
Isolation of a Bacillus stearothermophilus mutant exhibiting increased thermostability in its restriction endonuclease.
The nucleotide sequence recognised by the Escherichia coli D type I restriction and modification enzyme
Purification of a new restriction endonuclease, StyI, from Escherichia coli carrying the hsd+ miniplasmid
Nucleotide sequence of the Dpn II DNA methylase gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its relationship to the dam gene of Escherichia coli
A hybrid recognition sequence in a recombinant restriction enzyme and the evolution of DNA sequence specificity
Investigation of restriction-modification enzymes from M. varians RFL19 with a new type of specificity toward modification of substrate
DNA modification in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: resistance of DNA of 19 strains to cleavage by restriction enzymes
The EcoDXX1 restriction and modification system of Escherichia coli ET7. Purification, subunit structure and properties of the restriction endonuclease
A restriction endonuclease SuaI from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius
High-level production of the EcoRI endonuclease under the control of the pL promoter of bacteriophage lambda
Cloning of a restriction-modification system from Proteus vulgaris and its use in analyzing a methylase-sensitive phenotype in Escherichia coli.
A new endonuclease recognizing the deoxynucleotide sequence CCNNGG from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6701
Purification of Mbo II methylase (GAAGmA) from Moraxella bovis: site specific cleavage of DNA at nine and ten base pair sequences
Restriction endonuclease EcoO109 from Escherichia coli H709c with heptanucleotide recognition site 5'-PuG/GNCCPy
Conversion of the FokI endonuclease to a universal restriction enzyme: cleavage of phage M13mp7 DNA at predetermined sites
Cloning and expression of Bacillus subtilis phage DNA methyltransferase genes in Escherichia coli and B. subtilis
Isolation of a deoxycytidylate methyl transferase capable of protecting DNA uniquely against cleavage by endonuclease R.Aqu I (isoschizomer of Ava I)
Isolation and computer-aided characterization of MmeI, a type II restriction endonuclease from Methylophilus methylotrophus
Genetic basis of the complementary DpnI and DpnII restriction systems of S. pneumoniae: an intercellular cassette mechanism
In-vivo-modified gonococcal plasmid pJD1. A model system for analysis of restriction enzyme sensitivity to DNA modifications
High-performance liquid chromatography for the purification of restriction endonucleases, application to BanII, SacI, and SphI
Cross index for improving cloning selectivity by partially filling in 5'-extensions of DNA produced by type II restriction endonucleases
A novel multistep method for generating precise unidirectional deletions using BspMI, a class-IIS restriction enzyme
The effects of DNA methylation by Hha I methylase on the cleavage reactions by Hae II, Aha II and Ban I endonucleases
Isolation and some properties of the site-specific endonuclease and methylase Bme2161 from Bacillus megaterium 216
The cleavage site for the restriction endonucleases BanI and HgiC I is 5' ...G decreases GPyPuCC ...3'
Interaction of AluI, Cfr6I and PvuII restriction-modification enzymes with substrates containing either N4-methylcytosine or 5-methylcytosine
Cloning, purification and characterization of the HincII and HindII methyltransferases from Haemophilus influenzae
Multispecific DNA methyltransferases from Bacillus subtilis phages. Properties of wild-type and various mutant enzymes with altered DNA affinity
Neisseria gonorrhoeae M.Ngo AI DNA methyltransferase: physical and catalytic properties of the homogeneous enzyme
The 5'-GGATCC-3' cleavage specificity of BamHI is increased to 5'-CCGGATCCGG-3' by sequential double methylation with M.HpaII and M.BamHI
Single amino acid changes which alter the sequence specificity of the T4 and T2 (Dam) DNA-adenine methyltransferases
A simple method for locating methylated bases in DNA, as applied to detect asymmetric methylation by M.FokIA
Molecular cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the DNA methyltransferase, M.CviBIII, from Chlorella virus NC-1A
Overproduction of the Bacillus sphaericus R modification methylase in Escherichia coli and its purification to homogeneity
The GATATC-modification enzyme EcoRV is closely related to the GATC-recognizing methyltransferases DpnII and dam from E. coli and phage T4
Synthesis and physical characterization of DNA fragments containing N4-methylcytosine and 5-methylcytosine
Mouse ascites DNA methylase: characterisation of size, proteolytic breakdown and nucleotide recognition
Specificity of the break produced by restricting endonuclease R 1 in Simian virus 40 DNA, as revealed by partial denaturation mapping
Detection of two restriction endonuclease activities in Haemophilus parainfluenzae using analytical agarose--ethidium bromide electrophoresis
Specific fragments of phi X174 deoxyribonucleic acid produced by a restriction enzyme from Haemophilus aegyptius, endonuclease Z
Host specificity of DNA produced by Escherichia coli, X. In vitro restriction of phage fd replicative form
Host specificity of DNA produced by Escherichia coli. XII. The two restriction and modification systems of strain 15T-
A second type II restriction endonuclease from Thermus aquaticus with an unusual sequence specificity
Isolation and characterization of endonuclease J: a sequence-specific endonuclease cleaving immunoglobulin genes
Isolation of restriction enzyme EcoVIII, an isoschizomer of HindIII, produced by Escherichia coli E1585-68
Structure of the gene coding for the sequence-specific DNA-methyltransferase of the B. subtilis phage SPR
Restriction and modification in Bacillus subtilis: sequence specificities of restriction/modification systems BsuM, BsuE, and BsuF.
Restriction and modification in Bacillus subtilis: expression of the cloned methyltransferase gene from B. subtilis phage SPR in E. coli and B. subtilis
Genetic studies on site-specific endodeoxyribonucleases in Bacillus subtilis: multiple modification and restriction systems in transformants of Bacillus subtilis 168
Deoxyribonucleic acid modifications and restriction endonuclease production in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Restriction and modification in Bacillus subtilis: gene coding for a BsuR-specific modification methyltransferase in the temperate bacteriophage phi 3T
Overproduction of the EcoRII endonuclease and methylase by Escherichia coli strains carrying recombinant plasmids constructed in vitro
Relaxed specificity of endonuclease BamH1 as determined by identification or recognition sites in SV 40 and pBR 322 DNAs
Purification and characterization of two new modification methylases: MClaI from Caryophanon latum L and MTaqI from Thermus aquaticus YTI
Cleavage of mammalian repetitive deoxyribonucleic acids by a mammalian site-specific endodeoxyribonuclease
Expression of the Eco RI restriction-modification system and the construction of positive-selection cloning vectors
Molecular cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of two modification methylase genes of Bacillus subtilis
DNA restriction--modification genes of phage P1 and plasmid p15B. Structure and in vitro transcription
DNA restriction--modification enzymes of phage P1 and plasmid p15B. Subunit functions and structural homologies
Restriction and modification in Bacillus subtilis: DNA methylation potential of the related bacteriophages Z, SPR, SP beta, phi 3T, and rho 11
Isolation and characterisation of DraI, a type II restriction endonuclease recognising a sequence containing only A:T basepairs, and inhibition of its activity by uv irradiation of substrate DNA
The nucleotide sequence of the HhaII restriction and modification genes from Haemophilus haemolyticus
Eight new restriction endonucleases fröm Herpetosiphon giganteus--divergent evolution in a family of enzymes
Characterization of the genes coding for the Eco RV restriction and modification system of Escherichia coli
A type II restriction endonuclease with an eight nucleotide specificity from Streptomyces fimbriatus
DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: purification and characterization of apurinic endonucleases.
DNA-cytosine-5-methyltransferase from P815 mouse mastocytoma cells: "maintenance" and "de novo" activities are carried out by the same enzyme molecule
The frequency and distribution of methylatable DNA sequences in leguminous plant protein coding genes
Local bone formation by injection of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 contained in polymer carriers
I-NjaI, a nuclear intron-encoded homing endonuclease from Naegleria, generates a pentanucleotide 3' cleavage-overhang within a 19 base-pair partially symmetric DNA recognition site
Regulation of the HpyII restriction-modification system of Helicobacter pylori by gene deletion and horizontal reconstitution
Isolation of a new restriction enzyme, ApaCI, an isoschizomer of BamHI produced by Acetobacter pasteurianus
Design, synthesis and DNA-cleaving efficiency of photoswitchable dimeric azobenzene-based C2-symmetric enediynes
The XmnI restriction-modification system: cloning, expression, sequence organization and similarity between the R and M genes
RleAI: a novel class-IIS restriction endonuclease from Rhizobium leguminosarum recognizing 5'-CCCACA(N)12-3' 3'-GGGTGT(N)9-5'
MamI, a novel class-II restriction endonuclease from Microbacterium ammoniaphilum recognizing 5'-GATNN decreases NNATC-3'
Similarities between Fusobacterium nucleatum and bacteroides fragilis studied by two DNA probes derived from Fusobacterium nucleatum
McrI: a novel class-II restriction endonuclease from Micrococcus cryophilus recognizing 5'-CGRY/CG-3'
Water-soluble manganese inorganic polymers: the role of carborane clusters and producing large structural adjustments from minor molecular changes
The use of prokaryotic DNA methyltransferases as experimental and analytical tools in modern biology
Cues and regulatory pathways involved in natural competence and transformation in pathogenic and environmental Gram-negative bacteria
Rapid, sensitive, microbial detection by gene amplification using restriction endonuclease target sequences
Design of a combinatorial oligonucleotide library containing all possible hexamer palindromes: PCR synthesis and application for identifying restriction cleavage sites
Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes
Purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an M.HhaI-AdoMet complex
Mitochondrial DNA copy number is regulated in a tissue specific manner by DNA methylation of the nuclear-encoded DNA polymerase gamma A
Silver Ions Caused Faster Diffusive Dynamics of Histone-Like Nucleoid-Structuring Proteins in Live Bacteria
Identification of the XorII methyltransferase gene and a vsr homolog from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
Deletion of a disease resistance nucleotide-binding-site leucine-rich- repeat-like sequence is associated with the loss of the Phytophthora resistance gene Rps4 in soybean
Epigenetic variants of a transgenic petunia line show hypermethylation in transgene DNA: an indication for specific recognition of foreign DNA in transgenic plants
Sau3AI, a monomeric type II restriction endonuclease that dimerizes on the DNA and thereby induces DNA loops
Cloning and characterization of the MamI restriction-modification system from Microbacterium ammoniaphilum in Escherichia coli
Characterization of the archaeal, plasmid-encoded type II restriction-modification system MthTI from Methanobacterium thermoformicicum THF: homology to the bacterial NgoPII system from Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Isolation of an R- M+ mutant of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:8 and its application in construction of rough mutants utilizing mini-Tn5 derivatives and lipopolysaccharide-specific phage
Use of cloned DNA methylase genes to increase the frequency of transfer of foreign genes into Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum
Unique modification of adenine in genomic DNA of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067
Bacteriophage: Phage Therapy
Phage therapy uses bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) to treat bacterial infections and is widely being recognized as an alternative to antibiotics. Here is the latest research.