This review gives an overview on the development of research on spider venoms with a focus on structure and function of venom components and techniques of analysis. Major venom component groups are small molecular mass compounds, antimicrobial (also called cytolytic, or cationic) peptides (only in some spider families), cysteine-rich (neurotoxic) peptides, and enzymes and proteins. Cysteine-rich peptides are reviewed with respect to various structural motifs, their targets (ion channels, membrane receptors), nomenclature, and molecular binding. We further describe the latest findings concerning the maturation of antimicrobial, and cysteine-rich peptides that are in most known cases expressed as propeptide-containing precursors. Today, venom research, increasingly employs transcriptomic and mass spectrometric techniques. Pros and cons of venom gland transcriptome analysis with Sanger, 454, and Illumina sequencing are discussed and an overview on so far published transcriptome studies is given. In this respect, we also discuss the only recently described cross contamination arising from multiplexing in Illumina sequencing and its possible impacts on venom studies. High throughput mass spectrometric analysis of venom proteomes (bo...Continue Reading
The components of the venom of a spider Scodra griseipes. 2. Structural information on biogenic amines using tandem mass spectrometry
Molecular recognition between serine proteases and new bioactive microproteins with a knotted structure
Channels produced by spider venoms in bilayer lipid membrane: mechanisms of ion transport and toxic action
Rapid production of full-length cDNAs from rare transcripts: amplification using a single gene-specific oligonucleotide primer
Isolation and partial characterization of a toxin from the venom of the East African orthognath spider Pterinochilus spec
Isolation of a pure toxic polypeptide from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer and its neurophysiological activity on an insect femur preparation
Dendrotoxin from the venom of the green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps. A neurotoxin that enhances acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junction
Snake venom. The amino acid sequence of protein A from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba) venom
Kalicludines and kaliseptine. Two different classes of sea anemone toxins for voltage sensitive K+ channels.
Inward rectification of both AMPA and kainate subtype glutamate receptors generated by polyamine-mediated ion channel block
A common structural motif incorporating a cystine knot and a triple-stranded beta-sheet in toxic and inhibitory polypeptides
Purification of toxic peptides and the amino acid sequence of CSTX-1 from the multicomponent venom of Cupiennius salei (Araneae:Ctenidae)
Calcicludine, a venom peptide of the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor family, is a potent blocker of high-threshold Ca2+ channels with a high affinity for L-type channels in cerebellar granule neurons
Proteolytic processing mechanisms in the biosynthesis of neuroendocrine peptides: the subtilisin-like proprotein convertases
SGP28, a novel matrix glycoprotein in specific granules of human neutrophils with similarity to a human testis-specific gene product and a rodent sperm-coating glycoprotein
Cloning and structure of delta-latroinsectotoxin, a novel insect-specific member of the latrotoxin family: functional expression requires C-terminal truncation.
Isolation and characterization of a bradykinin potentiating peptide (BPP-S) isolated from Scaptocosa raptoria venom
Novel insecticidal peptides from Tegenaria agrestis spider venom may have a direct effect on the insect central nervous system
Isolation, characterization and biological properties of two kinin-like peptides (peptide-S and peptide-r) from Scaptocosa raptoria venom
A structural homologue of colipase in black mamba venom revealed by NMR floating disulphide bridge analysis
A family of antimicrobial peptides is produced by processing of a 7S globulin protein in Macadamia integrifolia kernels
Isolation of a funnel-web spider polypeptide with homology to mamba intestinal toxin 1 and the embryonic head inducer Dickkopf-1
Solution structure of hanatoxin1, a gating modifier of voltage-dependent K(+) channels: common surface features of gating modifier toxins
Discovery and characterization of a family of insecticidal neurotoxins with a rare vicinal disulfide bridge
Molecular and pharmacological properties of insect biogenic amine receptors: lessons from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera
CSTX-9, a toxic peptide from the spider Cupiennius salei: amino acid sequence, disulphide bridge pattern and comparison with other spider toxins containing the cystine knot structure
Oxyopinins, large amphipathic peptides isolated from the venom of the wolf spider Oxyopes kitabensis with cytolytic properties and positive insecticidal cooperativity with spider neurotoxins.
The venom optimisation hypothesis: a spider injects large venom quantities only into difficult prey types
Cupiennin 1d*: the cytolytic activity depends on the hydrophobic N-terminus and is modulated by the polar C-terminus
Wide distribution of cysteine-rich secretory proteins in snake venoms: isolation and cloning of novel snake venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins
Molecular cloning, expression analysis and cellular localization of gomesin, an anti-microbial peptide from hemocytes of the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana
cDNA sequence and in vitro folding of GsMTx4, a specific peptide inhibitor of mechanosensitive channels
Synthesis and characterization of delta-atracotoxin-Ar1a, the lethal neurotoxin from venom of the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus)
Rapid and efficient identification of cysteine-rich peptides by random screening of a venom gland cDNA library from the hexathelid spider Macrothele gigas
CSTX-13, a highly synergistically acting two-chain neurotoxic enhancer in the venom of the spider Cupiennius salei (Ctenidae)
A new approach to natural products discovery exemplified by the identification of sulfated nucleosides in spider venom
Pore formation of phospholipid membranes by the action of two hemolytic arachnid peptides of different size
Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses to solve micro-heterogeneity in post-translationally modified peptides from Phoneutria nigriventer (Aranea, Ctenidae) venom
Crystal structure of the cysteine-rich secretory protein stecrisp reveals that the cysteine-rich domain has a K+ channel inhibitor-like fold
Conkunitzin-S1 is the first member of a new Kunitz-type neurotoxin family. Structural and functional characterization
Solution structure and lipid membrane partitioning of VSTx1, an inhibitor of the KvAP potassium channel
Spider venom: enhancement of venom efficacy mediated by different synergistic strategies in Cupiennius salei
Discovery of an MIT-like atracotoxin family: spider venom peptides that share sequence homology but not pharmacological properties with AVIT family proteins
Genomic organization of four novel nondisulfide-bridged peptides from scorpion Mesobuthus martensii Karsch: gaining insight into evolutionary mechanism
Functional structure of Agelena labyrinthica's (Araneae:Agelenidae) venom gland and electrophoresis of venom
Venom landscapes: mining the complexity of spider venoms via a combined cDNA and mass spectrometric approach
Latarcins, antimicrobial and cytolytic peptides from the venom of the spider Lachesana tarabaevi (Zodariidae) that exemplify biomolecular diversity.
Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on huwentoxin-XI from the Chinese bird spider Ornithoctonus huwena: 15N labeling and sequence-specific 1H, 15N nuclear magnetic resonance assignments
Cupiennin 1a, an antimicrobial peptide from the venom of the neotropical wandering spider Cupiennius salei, also inhibits the formation of nitric oxide by neuronal nitric oxide synthase
Solution structure and interaction of cupiennin 1a, a spider venom peptide, with phospholipid bilayers
Molecular interactions of the gating modifier toxin ProTx-II with NaV 1.5: implied existence of a novel toxin binding site coupled to activation
Dietary and prey-capture adaptations by which Zodarion germanicum, an ant-eating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae), specialises on the Formicinae
Cytolytic and K+ channel blocking activities of beta-KTx and scorpine-like peptides purified from scorpion venoms
Structural analysis of the venom glands of the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer (Keyserling, 1891): microanatomy, fine structure and confocal observations
Molecular diversification based on analysis of expressed sequence tags from the venom glands of the Chinese bird spider Ornithoctonus huwena
Transcriptome analysis of Loxosceles laeta (Araneae, Sicariidae) spider venomous gland using expressed sequence tags
Transcriptome analysis revealed novel possible venom components and cellular processes of the tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao venom gland
NMR-spectroscopic screening of spider venom reveals sulfated nucleosides as major components for the brown recluse and related species
Proteomic analysis of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus venom for uncovering potential latrodectism-related proteins
Molecular evolution, functional variation, and proposed nomenclature of the gene family that includes sphingomyelinase D in sicariid spider venoms
Structural and functional characterization of two genetically related meucin peptides highlights evolutionary divergence and convergence in antimicrobial peptides
Coevolution of diet and prey-specific venom activity supports the role of selection in snake venom evolution
Geographic variation in venom allelic composition and diets of the widespread predatory marine gastropod Conus ebraeus
Functional basis of a molecular adaptation: prey-specific toxic effects of venom from Sistrurus rattlesnakes
Anti-arthritic activity of Indian monocellate cobra (Naja kaouthia) venom on adjuvant induced arthritis
Immunome and venome of Bothrops jararacussu: a proteomic approach to study the molecular immunology of snake toxins
Cupiennin 1a exhibits a remarkably broad, non-stereospecific cytolytic activity on bacteria, protozoan parasites, insects, and human cancer cells
Molecular diversification of peptide toxins from the tarantula Haplopelma hainanum (Ornithoctonus hainana) venom based on transcriptomic, peptidomic, and genomic analyses
Venom components from Citharischius crawshayi spider (Family Theraphosidae): exploring transcriptome, venomics, and function
A bivalent tarantula toxin activates the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, by targeting the outer pore domain
A novel expression profile of the Loxosceles intermedia spider venomous gland revealed by transcriptome analysis
Novel class of spider toxin: active principle from the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium venom is a unique two-domain polypeptide.
Snake venomics of African spitting cobras: toxin composition and assessment of congeneric cross-reactivity of the pan-African EchiTAb-Plus-ICP antivenom by antivenomics and neutralization approaches
Diversity of conotoxin types from Conus californicus reflects a diversity of prey types and a novel evolutionary history
Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the cDNAs Encoding Toxin-Like Peptides from the Venom Glands of Tarantula Grammostola rosea
A combined de novo protein sequencing and cDNA library approach to the venomic analysis of Chinese spider Araneus ventricosus
Molecular evolution of α-latrotoxin, the exceptionally potent vertebrate neurotoxin in black widow spider venom
Potency optimization of Huwentoxin-IV on hNav1.7: a neurotoxin TTX-S sodium-channel antagonist from the venom of the Chinese bird-eating spider Selenocosmia huwena
Salivary antigen-5/CAP family members are Cu2+-dependent antioxidant enzymes that scavenge O₂₋. and inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation and neutrophil oxidative burst.
Synthesis and biological characterization of synthetic analogs of Huwentoxin-IV (Mu-theraphotoxin-Hh2a), a neuronal tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel inhibitor
Sea anemone peptide with uncommon β-hairpin structure inhibits acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) and reveals analgesic activity.
SVM-based prediction of propeptide cleavage sites in spider toxins identifies toxin innovation in an Australian tarantula
Spider toxins comprising disulfide-rich and linear amphipathic domains: a new class of molecules identified in the lynx spider Oxyopes takobius
The venom gland transcriptome of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus revealed by deep sequencing and cDNA library analysis
Recruitment and diversification of an ecdysozoan family of neuropeptide hormones for black widow spider venom expression
A proteomics and transcriptomics investigation of the venom from the barychelid spider Trittame loki (brush-foot trapdoor)
Multifunctional warheads: diversification of the toxin arsenal of centipedes via novel multidomain transcripts
Structure of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium genes provides clues to evolution of insecticidal two-domain knottin toxins
Multi-tissue transcriptomics of the black widow spider reveals expansions, co-options, and functional processes of the silk gland gene toolkit
Dramatic expansion of the black widow toxin arsenal uncovered by multi-tissue transcriptomics and venom proteomics
High conopeptide diversity in Conus tribblei revealed through analysis of venom duct transcriptome using two high-throughput sequencing platforms
Engineering potent and selective analogues of GpTx-1, a tarantula venom peptide antagonist of the Na(V)1.7 sodium channel
Structural and Functional Diversity of Peptide Toxins from Tarantula Haplopelma hainanum (Ornithoctonus hainana) Venom Revealed by Transcriptomic, Peptidomic, and Patch Clamp Approaches.
Venom Proteomics of Indonesian King Cobra, Ophiophagus hannah: Integrating Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches
A survey of the venom of the spider Lycosa vittata by biochemical, pharmacological and transcriptomic analyses
Weaponization of a Hormone: Convergent Recruitment of Hyperglycemic Hormone into the Venom of Arthropod Predators
The history of venomous spider identification, venom extraction methods and antivenom production: a long journey at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil
Mass spectrometry guided venom profiling and bioactivity screening of the Anatolian Meadow Viper, Vipera anatolica
A Comparative Analysis of the Venom Gland Transcriptomes of the Fishing Spiders Dolomedes mizhoanus and Dolomedes sulfurous
Identification and characterization of toxins in the venom gland of the Chinese bird spider, Haplopelma hainanum, by transcriptomic analysis
Membrane-binding properties of gating modifier and pore-blocking toxins: Membrane interaction is not a prerequisite for modification of channel gating
Mapping Proteoforms and Protein Complexes From King Cobra Venom Using Both Denaturing and Native Top-down Proteomics.
Interaction of Tarantula Venom Peptide ProTx-II with Lipid Membranes Is a Prerequisite for Its Inhibition of Human Voltage-gated Sodium Channel NaV1.7.
Top-down venomics of the East African green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps, and the black mamba, Dendroaspis polylepis, highlight the complexity of their toxin arsenals
Structure of purotoxin-2 from wolf spider: modular design and membrane-assisted mode of action in arachnid toxins
Elemental Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Intact Protein Quantification without Protein-Specific Standards: Application to Snake Venomics
Molecular basis of the interaction between gating modifier spider toxins and the voltage sensor of voltage-gated ion channels
Insights into the Hypertensive Effects of Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom: Purification of an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Like Peptidase
Identifying different transcribed proteins in the newly described Theraphosidae Pamphobeteus verdolaga
House spider genome uncovers evolutionary shifts in the diversity and expression of black widow venom proteins associated with extreme toxicity
Potent neuroprotection after stroke afforded by a double-knot spider-venom peptide that inhibits acid-sensing ion channel 1a
Venom Profiling of a Population of the Theraphosid Spider Phlogius crassipes Reveals Continuous Ontogenetic Changes from Juveniles through Adulthood
The Nephila clavipes genome highlights the diversity of spider silk genes and their complex expression
Strategies in 'snake venomics' aiming at an integrative view of compositional, functional, and immunological characteristics of venoms
Absolute venomics: Absolute quantification of intact venom proteins through elemental mass spectrometry
A multi-protease, multi-dissociation, bottom-up-to-top-down proteomic view of the Loxosceles intermedia venom
Spider Neurotoxins, Short Linear Cationic Peptides and Venom Protein Classification Improved by an Automated Competition between Exhaustive Profile HMM Classifiers
A novel post hoc method for detecting index switching finds no evidence for increased switching on the Illumina HiSeq X
Venomics of Remipede Crustaceans Reveals Novel Peptide Diversity and Illuminates the Venom's Biological Role
ArachnoServer 3.0: an online resource for automated discovery, analysis and annotation of spider toxins
Identification of a precursor processing protease from the spider Cupiennius salei essential for venom neurotoxin maturation
Transcriptomics-guided bottom-up and top-down venomics of neonate and adult specimens of the arboreal rear-fanged Brown Treesnake, Boiga irregularis, from Guam
True Lies: Using Proteomics to Assess the Accuracy of Transcriptome-Based Venomics in Centipedes Uncovers False Positives and Reveals Startling Intraspecific Variation in Scolopendra Subspinipes
Gating modifier toxins isolated from spider venom: Modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels and the role of lipid membranes
Characterization and remediation of sample index swaps by non-redundant dual indexing on massively parallel sequencing platforms
Sexually dimorphic venom proteins in long-jawed orb-weaving spiders (Tetragnatha ) comprise novel gene families
An overview of Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom using combined transcriptomic and proteomic approaches
Toxin diversity revealed by the venom gland transcriptome of Pardosa pseudoannulata, a natural enemy of several insect pests
Transcriptome analysis of the spider Phoneutria pertyi venom glands reveals novel venom components for the genus Phoneutria
Structure-Function and Therapeutic Potential of Spider Venom-Derived Cysteine Knot Peptides Targeting Sodium Channels
Alternative Transcription at Venom Genes and Its Role as a Complementary Mechanism for the Generation of Venom Complexity in the Common House Spider
An Economic Dilemma Between Molecular Weapon Systems May Explain an Arachno-atypical Venom in Wasp Spiders (Argiope bruennichi).
A Multiomics Approach Unravels New Toxins With Possible In Silico Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antitumoral Activities in the Venom of Acanthoscurria rondoniae
Complex precursor structures of cytolytic cupiennins identified in spider venom gland transcriptomes.
Characterization of two linear peptides without disulfide bridges from the venom of the spider Lycosa poonaensis (Lycosidae).
Morphological Analysis Reveals a Compartmentalized Duct in the Venom Apparatus of the Wasp Spider (Argiope bruennichi).
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