Spinal cord injury in children often occurs without evidence of fracture or dislocation. The mechanisms of neural damage in this syndrome of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) include flexion, hyperextension, longitudinal distraction, and ischemia. Inherent elasticity of the vertebral column in infants and young children, among other age-related anatomical peculiarities, render the pediatric spine exceedingly vulnerable to deforming forces. The neurological lesions encountered in this syndrome include a high incidence of complete and severe partial cord lesions. Children younger than 8 years old sustain more serious neurological damage and suffer a larger number of upper cervical cord lesions than children aged over 8 years. Of the children with SCIWORA, 52% have delayed onset of paralysis up to 4 days after injury, and most of these children recall transient paresthesia, numbness, or subjective paralysis. Management includes tomography and flexion-extension films to rule out incipient instability, and immobilization with a cervical collar. Delayed dynamic films are essential to exclude late instability, which, if present, should be managed with Halo fixation or surgical fusion. The long-term prognosi...Continue Reading
Spinal cord injury in children and adolescents: diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic considerations in the acute stage [proceedings
On the theory and practice of shaking infants. Its potential residual effects of permanent brain damage and mental retardation
The value of postural reduction in the initial management of closed injuries of the spine with paraplegia and tetraplegia. I
Biomechanics of the cervical spinal cord. Relief of contact pressure on and overstretching of the spinal cord
The syndrome of acute central cervical spinal cord injury; with special reference to the mechanisms involved in hyperextension injuries of cervical spine
The Goulstonian Lectures ON SPINAL INJURIES OF WARFARE: Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London
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Applications of diffusion-weighted MRI in thoracic spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality
Traumatic paraplegia in a child with minimal vertebral anomalies and its successful treatment by anterior spinal cord decompression
Diagnosis and prognostication of adult spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality using magnetic resonance imaging: analysis of 40 patients
Spinal cord injury with a narrow spinal canal: utilizing Torg's ratio method of analyzing cervical spine radiographs
Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality: results of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study in blunt cervical trauma
Traumatic cervical hematomyelia: report of a rare spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality
Use of the finite element method to study the mechanism of spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in the cervical spine
Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in a 4-year-old child: hypoperfusion injury or direct trauma?
The adult spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities syndrome: magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings in adults with spinal cord injuries having normal radiographs and computed tomography studies
Trauma sites and clinical features associated with acute hyperextension spinal cord injury without bone damage--relationship between trauma site and severity
Spinal cord infarction following minor trauma in children: fibrocartilaginous embolism as a putative cause
Magnetic resonance imaging correlation in pediatric spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality
Use of Fidji cervical cage in the treatment of cervical spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality
Clinical outcomes of the surgical treatment of isolated unilateral facet fractures, subluxations, and dislocations in the pediatric cervical spine: report of eight cases and review of the literature
Spinal cord injuries with normal postmortem CT findings: a pitfall of virtual autopsy for detecting traumatic death
Outcome of decompression surgery for cervical spinal cord injury without bone and disc injury in patients with spinal cord compression: a multicenter prospective study
Congenital craniocervical anomalies pose a vulnerability to spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA)
Epidemiology and Management of Injuries to the Spinal Cord and Column in Pediatric Multiple-Trauma Patients
A case of fatal cervical discoligamentous hyperextension injury without fracture: correlation of postmortem imaging and autopsy findings
Subacute T1-low intensity area reflects neurological prognosis for patients with cervical spinal cord injury without major bone injury
Cervical spine injuries in children: attention to radiographic differences and stability compared to those in the adult patient
Prediction of prognosis in patients with cervical spinal cord injury without radiologic evidence of trauma using MRI
Patterns and outcomes of pediatric facial fractures in the United States: a survey of the National Trauma Data Bank
Idiopathic Cervical Hematomyelia in an Infant: Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality Caused by a Trivial Trauma? Case Report and Review of the Literature
Cervical spine trauma in children: Part I. General concepts, normal anatomy, radiographic evaluation
Unrecognized incomplete cervical spinal cord injury: review of nine new and 28 previously reported cases
Will the Real SCIWORA Please Stand Up? Exploring Clinicoradiologic Mismatch in Closed Spinal Cord Injuries
Multicenter retrospective evaluation of the validity of the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score system in children
Role of Intraoperative Disc Contrast Injection in Determining the Segment Responsible for Cervical Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormalities
Quantification of pediatric and adult cervical vertebra-anatomical characteristics by age and gender for automotive application
Epidemiology of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in children: a nationwide perspective
Heterogeneity in cervical spine assessment in paediatric trauma: A survey of physicians' knowledge and application at a paediatric major trauma centre
Cervical Spinal Cord Injury without Computed Tomography Evidence of Trauma in Adults: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Prognostic Factors
Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation: Part 1--Biomechanics of normal rotation at the atlantoaxial joint in children
Pediatric thoracic SCIWORA after back bend during dance practice: a retrospective case series and analysis of trauma mechanisms
Delayed Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality
Acute complete paraplegia of 8-year-old girl caused by spinal cord infarction following minor trauma complicated with longitudinal signal change of spinal cord
Expert's comment concerning Grand Rounds case entitled "Acute complete paraplegia of a 8-year-old girl caused by spinal cord infarction following minor trauma complicated with longitudinal signal change of spinal cord" by K. Nagata et al. (Eur Spine J, 2017: doi:10.1007/s00586-017-4995-9)
Traumatic atypical tetraplegia without radiologic abnormalities including magnetic resonance imaging in an adult: a case report
Can magnetic resonance imaging reflect the prognosis in patients of cervical spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality?
Pediatric care report of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA): case report and literature review
Complete recovery of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality and traumatic brachial plexopathy in a young infant falling from a 30-feet-high window
Risk of cervical spine injury and other complications seen with skull fractures in the setting of mild closed head injury in young children: a retrospective study
Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in children
Evaluation and management of paediatric and adolescent back pain: Epidemiology, presentation, investigation, and clinical management: A narrative review
Spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in an infant with delayed presentation of symptoms after a minor injury
Spinal trauma in mainland China from 2001 to 2007: an epidemiological study based on a nationwide database
Spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality in children imaged with magnetic resonance imaging
The misapplication of the term spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) in adults
Characterization of all-terrain vehicle-related thoracolumbar spine injury patterns in children using the AOSpine classification system
Abusive Pediatric Thoracolumbar Fracture Due to Forced Hyperextension: Case Report, Biomechanical Considerations, and Review of the Literature.
Traumatic transection of the aorta and thoracic spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in an adult patient
Pediatric spinal cord injury in infant piglets: description of a new large animal model and review of the literature
Early magnetic resonance imaging in spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in adults: a retrospective study
Complications Associated With High-dose Corticosteroid Administration in Children With Spinal Cord Injury
The utility of magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric trauma patients suspected of having cervical spine injuries
Cervical facet dislocations in the adolescent population: a report of 21 cases at a Level 1 trauma center from 2004 to 2014
Spinal Column Injury at T11-T12 Causing C8 Tetraplegia Misdiagnosed as Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality in an Adult: A Case Report
Non-locality and the misdiagnosis of Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality: proof of concept
T2 Spinal Cord Injury Caused by Noncontiguous Traumatic C1-C2 Ligamentous Injury in a Young Child: A Case Report
Establishment and verification of a surgical prognostic model for cervical spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality
Diagnostics and treatment of cervical spine trauma in pediatric patients : Recommendations from the Pediatric Spinal Trauma Group
Pediatric spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA): the absence of occult instability and lack of indication for bracing
Real spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality in pediatric patient with tight filum terminale following minor trauma: a case report
Sports-related Cervical Spine Fracture and Spinal Cord Injury: A Review of Nationwide Pediatric Trends.
Superiority of thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS) over AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification for the surgical management decision of traumatic spine injury in the pediatric population.
Multicenter study of 37 pediatric patients with SCIWORA or other spinal cord injury without associated bone lesion.
The usefulness of a modified adult protocol for the clearance of paediatric cervical spine injury in the emergency department
Non-locality and the misdiagnosis of Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality: proof of concept
An Unrecognized Ligament and its Ossification in the Craniocervical Junction: Prevalence, Patient Characteristics, and Anatomic Evidence.
Traumatic atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation and dens fracture with subaxial SCIWORA of Brown-Sequard syndrome: A case report.
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