PMID: 7993307Sep 1, 1994Paper

Spine morphology of neurons in the avian forebrain is affected by rearing conditions

Behavioral and Neural Biology
A Rollenhagen, H J Bischof


An area of the caudal forebrain of male zebra finches, the Archi-Neostriatum caudale (ANC), which is active during arousal (Bischof & Herrmann, 1986, 1988), shows rearing-dependent changes in neuron morphology (Rollenhagen & Bischof, 1991). We demonstrate here that rearing conditions also affect the shape of spines of one of the four ANC neuron types. This neuron type was examined in birds reared under five different conditions--in isolation (1), caged (2), in the aviary (3), and with social contact (4) or chasing (5) after an isolation period. Our results show that social experience determines the proportion of the three types of spines (thin, mushroom, and stubby) of the investigated neuron type. Rearing conditions and short social contact also affect the spine stem length of the thin spine type. Long-term isolation results in a reduction in number and elongation of shafts of thin spines, along with an increase of stubby-and mushroom-shaped spines. Short-term social contact or arousal enhances the number of mushroom-and thin-shaped spines and reduces the length of spine stems of thin spines. We suggest that isolation prevents the ANC neuron from reaching full development. The increase of mushroom and thin spine types due to s...Continue Reading


Dec 15, 1979·The Journal of Comparative Neurology·M L Feldman, A Peters
May 1, 1988·Behavioral and Neural Biology·H J Bischof, K Herrmann
Dec 22, 1987·The Journal of Comparative Neurology·C Beaulieu, M Colonnier
Sep 1, 1986·Behavioural Brain Research·H J Bischof, K Herrmann
Dec 20, 1974·Science·D P Purpura
Aug 1, 1973·Experimental Neurology·W T Greenough, F R Volkmar
Apr 1, 1970·The American Journal of Anatomy·A Peters, I R Kaiserman-Abramof
Nov 1, 1967·Experimental Neurology·A Globus, A B Scheibel
Apr 1, 1980·Experimental Neurology·J R ConnorR E Johnson
Jan 1, 1952·Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology·H T CHANG
Oct 30, 1964·Science·E L BENNETTM R ROSENZWEIG

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Mar 20, 2003·Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research·Ciaran J FahertyRichard Jay Smeyne
Mar 20, 2003·Behavioural Brain Research·Carsten Lieshoff, Hans-Joachim Bischof
Oct 23, 1997·The Journal of Comparative Neurology·B JacobsM Schall

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.