SpitWorm, an herbivorous robot: Mechanical leaf wounding with simultaneous application of salivary components

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Guanjun LiWilhelm Boland

Abstract

Induction of plant defense against insect herbivory is initiated by a combination of both, mechanical wounding and chemical factors. In order to study both effects independently on plant defense induction, SpitWorm, a computer controlled device which mimics the damage pattern of feeding insect larvae on leaves and can additionally apply oral secretions (OS) or other solutions to the ‘biting site’ during ‘feeding’, was developed and evaluated. The amount of OS left by a Spodoptera littoralis larva during feeding on Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean) leaves was estimated by combining larval foregut volume, biting rate, and quantification of a fluorescent dye injected into the larvae’s foregut prior to feeding. For providing OS amounts by SpitWorm equivalent to larval feeding, dilution and delivery rate were optimized. The effectiveness of SpitWorm was tested by comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions of P. lunatus leaves treated with either SpitWorm, MecWorm or S. littoralis larvae. Identification and quantification of emitted VOCs revealed that SpitWorm induced a volatile bouquet that is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to herbivory. Additionally, RT-qPCR of four jasmonic acid responsive genes showed that SpitWor...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Fluorescent Dyes
Genes
Insecta
Larva
Jasmonic acid
Dilution Technique
Oral Cavity Carcinoma
Controllers
Site
Plant Leaves

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