PMID: 1895124Jul 1, 1991

Square wave jerks in parkinsonian syndromes

Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
O RascolM Clanet


The frequency of square wave jerks (SWJ) was compared in eight patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 25 patients with multiple system atrophy or Parkinson's disease plus (MSA/PP), 85 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 age-matched normal volunteers. In the control group, the mean (SD) SWJ frequency (SWJ larger than 1 degree amplitude) was 2.3 (2.4)/min. Abnormal ocular fixation (SWJ frequency greater than 10/min) was observed in a large proportion of PSP patients (7/8) and of MSA/PP patients (16/25) but in few PD patients (13/85). In the group of PD patients with abnormal ocular fixation, freezing of gait, falls and instability were more severe than in the group of PD patients with normal fixation. The study of ocular fixation may help to differentiate PD clinically from other Parkinsonian syndromes. SWJ are probably not related to the central degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway observed in PD.


Apr 1, 1994·Annals of Neurology·Marie VidailhetC Pierrot-Deseilligny
Jan 1, 1992·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·R D JonesP L Timmings
Mar 1, 1995·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·O RascolA Rascol
May 1, 1995·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·N Gouider-KhoujaY Agid
Nov 1, 1992·Journal of the Neurological Sciences·B R BloemR A Roos
Mar 15, 2003·Journal of Clinical Neuroscience : Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia·John D O'SullivanJon Currie
Sep 12, 2006·Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS·Joanne FieldingOwen White
Oct 23, 2008·Brain : a Journal of Neurology·Emmanuelle ApartisAnnie Lannuzel
Jan 6, 2007·Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology : the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society·Ugur E AltiparmakKelly Condon
Sep 21, 2004·Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry·S GarbuttR John Leigh
Mar 18, 2008·Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry·H A C WarkM A Basso
Dec 1, 1993·Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry·N P Quinn, C D Marsden
Aug 1, 1994·Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry·C KennardL Henderson
Aug 1, 1995·Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry·S ShaunakC Kennard
Mar 25, 2011·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Jorge Otero-MillanSusana Martinez-Conde
Aug 15, 2014·PloS One·Cecilia BonnetEvžen Růžička
Mar 5, 2013·Neurotoxicology and Teratology·Kiyotaka NakamagoeAkira Tamaoka
Sep 8, 2012·Behavior Research Methods·Marcus NyströmJoost van de Weijer
Dec 3, 2014·Neurologic Clinics·Shin C BehElliot M Frohman
Feb 2, 2016·Journal of Movement Disorders·Helen Ling
Aug 14, 2012·Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology·Yasuo TeraoYoshikazu Ugawa
Jul 6, 2011·Neural Networks : the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society·R KrishnanM Rengaswamy
Aug 31, 2010·Parkinsonism & Related Disorders·Elmar H Pinkhardt, Jan Kassubek
Sep 24, 2004·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·Luisa Klotz, Thomas Klockgether
Apr 3, 2008·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·Tim J AndersonAdolfo Bronstein
Jun 26, 2012·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·Steven J Frucht
Jan 22, 2005·Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology·Thomas Brandt, Michael Strupp
Oct 11, 2005·Psychiatry Research·Caralynn V NowinskiJohn A Sweeney
Oct 26, 2005·Neurobiology of Disease·L RampelloA Alvano
Apr 22, 2015·Brain : a Journal of Neurology·Timothy J ShakespeareSebastian J Crutch
Sep 11, 2004·Vision Research·R V Abadi, E Gowen
Apr 7, 2012·Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior·Silvia ClausiMaria G Leggio
Jul 18, 2008·Handbook of Clinical Neurology·Shaheda N Azher, Joseph Jankovic
Dec 24, 2013·F1000Research·James W GnadtJagmeet S Kanwal
Jun 21, 2006·Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics·E Ray DorseyBernard M Ravina
Jan 23, 2013·Nature Reviews. Neurology·Tim J Anderson, Michael R MacAskill
Mar 12, 2019·Current Alzheimer Research·Kiyotaka NakamagoeAkira Tamaoka
Jan 11, 2013·Current Opinion in Neurology·João Lemos, Eric Eggenberger
Jul 24, 2019·Translational Neurodegeneration·Onanong Phokaewvarangkul, Roongroj Bhidayasiri
Jul 16, 2010·Clinical & Experimental Optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association·Richard A Armstrong
Feb 9, 2019·Journal of Movement Disorders·Ileok Jung, Ji-Soo Kim


May 1, 1979·Annals of Neurology·D S Zee, D A Robinson
Jul 1, 1979·Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry·G AvanziniR Spreafico
Mar 1, 1979·Ophthalmology·F C ChuA C Williams
Nov 1, 1977·Annals of Neurology·B T Troost, R B Daroff
Jan 1, 1989·Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology·W R Gibb, A J Lees
Jan 1, 1989·The American Journal of Medicine·G M StaveT M Kerkering
Apr 1, 1989·Clinical Neuropharmacology·W C Koller
Jun 1, 1989·Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry·Niall Quinn
Apr 1, 1989·Brain : a Journal of Neurology·C Pierrot-DeseillignyY Agid
Apr 1, 1989·Clinical Neuropharmacology·W C KollerR Hassanein
Jun 1, 1988·Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry·W R Gibb, A J Lees
Jun 1, 1986·Journal of the Neurological Sciences·E BollenO J Buruma
Feb 1, 1988·Neurology·W A Fletcher, J A Sharpe
Oct 1, 1986·Annals of Neurology·J R HotsonJ W Langston
Jan 1, 1986·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·H L Klawans
Sep 1, 1986·Neurology·T FukazawaM Kase
May 1, 1967·Neurology·M M Hoehn, M D Yahr
Jan 1, 1983·Journal of Neurology·A JonesB A Thompkins-Ober
Nov 1, 1984·The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. Le Journal Canadien Des Sciences Neurologiques·J A Sharpe, W A Fletcher
Jan 1, 1983·Neuropsychobiology·W Schmid-BurgkH H Kornhuber
Jun 1, 1982·Experimental Neurology·R W BalohN Furuya
Jan 1, 1982·Neurology·J A SharpeOwen White

Related Concepts

Fixation, Ocular
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Auditory Diseases, Central
Parkinsonian Disorders
Multiple System Atrophy
Shy-Drager Syndrome
Dopamine Receptor
Parkinson Disease

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Sexual Dimorphism in Neurodegeneration

There exist sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, multiple sclerosis is more common in women, whereas Parkinson’s disease is more common in men. Here is the latest research on sexual dimorphism in neurodegeneration

HLA Genetic Variation

HLA genetic variation has been found to confer risk for a wide variety of diseases. Identifying these associations and understanding their molecular mechanisms is ongoing and holds promise for the development of therapeutics. Find the latest research on HLA genetic variation here.

Super-resolution Microscopy

Super-resolution microscopy is the term commonly given to fluorescence microscopy techniques with resolutions that are not limited by the diffraction of light. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to super-resolution microscopy.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.

Brain Lower Grade Glioma

Low grade gliomas in the brain form from oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and are the slowest-growing glioma in adults. Discover the latest research on these brain tumors here.

CD4/CD8 Signaling

Cluster of differentiation 4 and 8 (CD8 and CD8) are glycoproteins founds on the surface of immune cells. Here is the latest research on their role in cell signaling pathways.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.