Stem cell models of human synapse development and degeneration

Molecular Biology of the Cell
Emily S Wilson, Karen Newell-Litwa

Abstract

Many brain disorders exhibit altered synapse formation in development or synapse loss with age. To understand the complexities of human synapse development and degeneration, scientists now engineer neurons and brain organoids from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSC). These hIPSC-derived brain models develop both excitatory and inhibitory synapses and functional synaptic activity. In this review, we address the ability of hIPSC-derived brain models to recapitulate synapse development and insights gained into the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic alterations in neuronal disorders. We also discuss the potential for more accurate human brain models to advance our understanding of synapse development, degeneration, and therapeutic responses.

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Citations

Jul 28, 2020·Journal of Neuroscience Research·Emily S WilsonKaren Newell-Litwa
May 16, 2019·Assay and Drug Development Technologies·Alexis Papariello, Karen Newell-Litwa
Jun 9, 2020·Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology·Lisa Maria Smits, Jens Christian Schwamborn
Oct 7, 2020·Scientific Reports·Emily S WilsonKaren Newell-Litwa
Nov 9, 2019·Trends in Molecular Medicine·Daniel A BalikovEthan S Lippmann

Methods Mentioned

BETA
electron microscopy

Related Concepts

Brain
Cell Differentiation Process
Neurons
Organoids
Synapses
Neurogenesis
Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Brain Diseases
Nerve Degeneration
Stem Cells

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