PMID: 108003Mar 1, 1979

Strategic withdrawal from cigarette smoking

CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
A G Christen, K H Cooper


Cigarette smoking can be viewed mainly as a psychological habit with accompanying pharmacological and social satisfactions and reinforcements. It is mainly a learned behavior, occurring in response to direct and indirect social pressures. Though each person's smoking habit is individualized, studies show that smokers find at least six psychological satisfactions in the habit: stimulation, handling, relaxation, tension reduction, craving and habit. To quit smoking, the individual must undergo physical and psychological withdrawal. Physical withdrawal symptoms last about a week but it may take months or years to restructure a life without cigarettes. Quitting is a long-term learning process involving a great deal of unconscious, constructive and painful conflict. One can stop smoking if the problem is attacked on a broad front, if one "burns one's bridges" behind him/her and if suitable satisfying alternatives and involvements are discovered. Physical exercise in the form of aerobics is proposed as an especially effective alternative behavior.


Jan 1, 1991·Drug and Alcohol Review·T P OeiK Gow

Related Concepts

Alcohol Consumption
Cigar smoker
Harassment, Non-Sexual
Withdrawal Symptoms

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

The Tendon Seed Network

Tendons are rich in the extracellular matrix and are abundant throughout the body providing essential roles including structure and mobility. The transcriptome of tendons is being compiled to understand the micro-anatomical functioning of tendons. Discover the latest research pertaining to the Tendon Seed Network here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.


Incretins are metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in glucose levels in the blood and they have been implicated in glycemic regulation in the remission phase of type 1 diabetes. Here is the latest research.

Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks

The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.

Long COVID-19

“Long Covid-19” describes illness in patients who are reporting long-lasting effects of the SARS-CoV-19 infection, often long after they have recovered from acute Covid-19. Ongoing health issues often reported include low exercise tolerance and breathing difficulties, chronic tiredness, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. This feed follows the latest research into Long Covid.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved