Streptococcus pneumoniae: epidemiology and risk factors, evolution of antimicrobial resistance, and impact of vaccines

Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Joseph P Lynch, George G Zhanel

Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains an important cause of pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremias, and acute otitis media worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance among pneumococci has escalated dramatically over the past three decades, and is influenced by patterns of antibiotic use, population density, and spread of a few international clones. Globally, antimicrobial resistance among pneumococci spread rapidly in the 1990s, reflecting dissemination of a few clones. The incidence of resistance varies considerably among different geographic regions and is influenced by patterns of antibiotic use, population density, and local prevalence of resistant strains. The use of specific antibiotic classes not only predisposes to resistance to that class but also may facilitate emergence of resistance to unrelated antibiotic classes. Judicious usage of antibiotics may reduce the incidence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci. Following usage of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease declined in both children and adults (reflecting herd immunity). However, emergence of serotypes not encompassed in the vaccine is worrisome, and may be associated with heightened antimicrobial resistan...Continue Reading

Citations

Jun 15, 2011·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·Roman PrymulaV Usonis
Jan 29, 2013·Nature Chemical Biology·Yue FuDavid P Giedroc
Jul 29, 2011·Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications·Jaya BhushanBichitra Kumar Biswal
Mar 9, 2011·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·Iciar Rodríguez-AvialMadrid Streptococcus pneumoniae Microbiological Group
Dec 16, 2011·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Xin WangLeonard W Mayer
May 25, 2012·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·Layla K MahdiAbiodun D Ogunniyi
Jun 8, 2012·International Journal of General Medicine·José BarberánMaría-José Giménez
Mar 25, 2014·Glycoconjugate Journal·Giovana Cappio BarazzoneFrancesco Berti
Apr 17, 2013·European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology : Official Journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : Affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery·S PalmaA Martini
Aug 12, 2014·Semergen·F Casas MaldonadoD A Vargas Ortega
Jun 15, 2014·Drugs & Aging·Pierre-Olivier Lang, Richard Aspinall
Jul 24, 2014·Biometals : an International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine·Nidia León-SicairosAdrian Canizalez-Román
May 20, 2014·European Journal of Pediatrics·Marijke ProesmansKris De Boeck
Jul 19, 2014·Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica·S Alfayate-MiguélezGrupo de estudio de Enfermedades infecciosas de la comunidad autónoma de Murcia
Mar 15, 2014·BMC Research Notes·Christin SchnappaufWieland Kiess
Oct 29, 2015·The American Journal of Emergency Medicine·Toru HifumiShingo Hori
Oct 12, 2015·International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology·Beata Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Anna Bielicka
Jun 26, 2013·Anales de pediatría : publicación oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)·F González MartínezT Hernández-Sampelayo Matos
Nov 3, 2012·Research in Microbiology·Camille Danne, Shaynoor Dramsi
Nov 21, 2012·Journal of Infection and Public Health·Diego Rosselli, Juan-David Rueda
May 12, 2012·Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators·David M AronoffPeter Mancuso
Oct 17, 2012·Paediatric Respiratory Reviews·Sam Mehr, Nicholas Wood
Jan 28, 2012·Current Opinion in Microbiology·Lok-To ShamMalcolm E Winkler
Aug 11, 2015·Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases·Dilek GuldemirInvasive Pneumococcal Diseases Study Group
Dec 15, 2015·Medicina clínica·A Vila-CorcolesEPIVAC Research Team
Oct 9, 2015·Current Infectious Disease Reports·Alexandra McFarlane, Wendy Sligl
Jun 10, 2011·Molecular Microbiology·Anita MinnenJan-Willem Veening
Mar 28, 2013·Pediatric Pulmonology·Adi Klein KremerRafael M Nagler
Oct 3, 2013·Pediatrics in Review·Rani S Gereige, Pablo Marcelo Laufer
Sep 14, 2015·La Presse médicale·Laila Baratali, Pierre Olivier Lang
Sep 28, 2010·Journal of Critical Care·Antonia-Panagiota GeorgopoulouHellenic Sepsis Study Group
Dec 3, 2014·Anales de pediatría : publicación oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)·S Alfayate-MiguélezGrupo de estudio de Enfermedades infecciosas de la Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia
Dec 18, 2013·Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases·Jayakayatri Jeevajothi NathanNiazlin Mohd Taib
Jun 1, 2014·Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics·Adamantia LiapikouAntonio Torres
Feb 20, 2015·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Adoración Navarro-TornéInvasive Pneumococcal Disease Study Group
Nov 20, 2012·Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research : OTSR·L LegoutE Senneville
Oct 1, 2013·Developmental and Comparative Immunology·Anni SaralahtiSamuli Rounioja
Jan 24, 2015·Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica·A Vila-CorcolesJorge Guzmán-Ávalos
Sep 15, 2016·EBioMedicine·Steven Black
Oct 22, 2016·Atencion primaria·A Vila-Corcoles, O Ochoa-Gondar
Mar 8, 2011·American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy : AJHP : Official Journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists·Elias B Chahine
Jan 10, 2020·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Yifang YangYftah Tal-Gan
Oct 4, 2013·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Rudra BhowmickJohn M Leong
Mar 29, 2018·Open Forum Infectious Diseases·Kristin N NelsonJorge E Vidal
Apr 30, 2017·Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine·Ofer PragerYaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
Feb 18, 2017·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Ulrike BinskerSven Hammerschmidt
Mar 14, 2019·Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology·Fei ZhaoJianhua Wang
May 15, 2018·Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology·Krysta M FelixHsin-Jung J Wu

Related Concepts

Antibiotics
Pneumococcal Infections
Streptococcal Pneumonia
Primary Prevention
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Vaccination
Bacteremia
Benefit-Risk Assessment
Pneumovax
Antibiotic Resistance, Bacterial

Related Feeds

Antimicrobial Resistance

Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to the continued successful use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections.

Antimicrobial Resistance (ASM)

Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to the continued successful use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections.

Bacterial Meningitis (ASM)

Bacterial meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Here is the latest research.

Bacterial Pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia is a prevalent and costly infection that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients of all ages. Here is the latest research.

Bacterial Meningitis

Bacterial meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Here is the latest research.

Bacterial Pneumonia (ASM)

Bacterial pneumonia is a prevalent and costly infection that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients of all ages. Here is the latest research.