Jul 11, 2018

Streptococcus pneumoniae's Virulence and Host Immunity: Aging, Diagnostics, and Prevention

Frontiers in Immunology
Lavida R K Brooks, George I Mias

Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an infectious pathogen responsible for millions of deaths worldwide. Diseases caused by this bacterium are classified as pneumococcal diseases. This pathogen colonizes the nasopharynx of its host asymptomatically, but overtime can migrate to sterile tissues and organs and cause infections. Pneumonia is currently the most common pneumococcal disease. Pneumococcal pneumonia is a global health concern and vastly affects children under the age of five as well as the elderly and individuals with pre-existing health conditions. S. pneumoniae has a large selection of virulence factors that promote adherence, invasion of host tissues, and allows it to escape host immune defenses. A clear understanding of S. pneumoniae's virulence factors, host immune responses, and examining the current techniques available for diagnosis, treatment, and disease prevention will allow for better regulation of the pathogen and its diseases. In terms of disease prevention, other considerations must include the effects of age on responses to vaccines and vaccine efficacy. Ongoing work aims to improve on current vaccination paradigms by including the use of serotype-independent vaccines, such as protein and whole cell vaccines. Ex...Continue Reading

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References

Mentioned in this Paper

Nasopharyngeal Diseases
Immune Response
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Nasopharynx
Regulation of Biological Process
Pathogenic Organism
Vaccines
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Organ
Etiology

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