Structural and mechanistic analysis of two refined crystal structures of the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme dialkylglycine decarboxylase

Journal of Molecular Biology
Michael D ToneyJ N Jansonius


Two refined structures, differing in alkali metal ion content, of the bifunctional, pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme dialkylglycine decarboxylase (DGD) are presented in detail. The enzyme is an alpha 4 tetramer, built up as a dimer of dimers, with a subunit molecular mass of 46.5 kDa. The fold of DGD is similar to those of aspartate aminotransferase, omega-amino acid aminotransferase and tyrosine phenol-lyase. The structure has two binding sites for alkali metal ions. DGD with potassium in site 1 (near the active site) and sodium in site 2 (at the surface of the molecule) has been refined against 2.6A resolution data (R-factor = 17.6%), and DGD with sodium at both sites has been refined against 2.1 A resolution data (R-factor = 17.8%). The proximity of site 1 to the active site accounts for the dependence of enzyme activity on potassium ions, and the observed active site structural changes caused by ion exchange at this site explain the inhibition of activity by sodium. DGD catalyzes both the decarboxylation of dialkylglycine species and the transamination of L-amino acids in its normal catalytic cycle. The active site structure of DGD is moderately homologous to that of aspartate aminotransferase, which catalyzes only tran...Continue Reading


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