Studies of ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated entry and fusion by using pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions: involvement of cytoskeletal proteins and enhancement by tumor necrosis factor alpha

Journal of Virology
Akihito YonezawaWarner C Greene

Abstract

The Ebola filoviruses are aggressive pathogens that cause severe and often lethal hemorrhagic fever syndromes in humans and nonhuman primates. To date, no effective therapies have been identified. To analyze the entry and fusion properties of Ebola virus, we adapted a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion-based fusion assay by substituting Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) for the HIV-1 envelope. Fusion was detected by cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate CCF2 by beta-lactamase-Vpr incorporated into virions and released as a result of virion fusion. Entry and fusion induced by the Ebola virus GP occurred with much slower kinetics than with vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) and were blocked by depletion of membrane cholesterol and by inhibition of vesicular acidification with bafilomycin A1. These properties confirmed earlier studies and validated the assay for exploring other properties of Ebola virus GP-mediated entry and fusion. Entry and fusion of Ebola virus GP pseudotypes, but not VSV-G or HIV-1 Env pseudotypes, were impaired in the presence of the microtubule-disrupting agent nocodazole but were enhanced in the presence of the microtubule-stabilizing agent paclitaxel (Taxol). Agents that impaired micr...Continue Reading

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