Substrate generation for endonucleases of CRISPR/cas systems

Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE
Judith ZoephelLennart Randau

Abstract

The interaction of viruses and their prokaryotic hosts shaped the evolution of bacterial and archaeal life. Prokaryotes developed several strategies to evade viral attacks that include restriction modification, abortive infection and CRISPR/Cas systems. These adaptive immune systems found in many Bacteria and most Archaea consist of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) sequences and a number of CRISPR associated (Cas) genes (Fig. 1) (1-3). Different sets of Cas proteins and repeats define at least three major divergent types of CRISPR/Cas systems (4). The universal proteins Cas1 and Cas2 are proposed to be involved in the uptake of viral DNA that will generate a new spacer element between two repeats at the 5' terminus of an extending CRISPR cluster (5). The entire cluster is transcribed into a precursor-crRNA containing all spacer and repeat sequences and is subsequently processed by an enzyme of the diverse Cas6 family into smaller crRNAs (6-8). These crRNAs consist of the spacer sequence flanked by a 5' terminal (8 nucleotides) and a 3' terminal tag derived from the repeat sequence (9). A repeated infection of the virus can now be blocked as the new crRNA will be directed by a Cas protein complex...Continue Reading

References

Nov 12, 2015·Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience·Vyatcheslav V AndrianovKhalil L Gainutdinov
Nov 4, 2019·Cancer Gene Therapy·Shuai Zhen, Xu Li

Citations

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Related Concepts

Clostridium thermocellum
Immune System
Endonuclease
Endonuclease Activity
Viral Proteins
DNA, Viral
Uptake
Hairpin Loop Sequence
Phosphate Measurement
Archaea

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