The mechanism by which deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) achieves its effects in Parkinson's disease (PD) is not known. In animal models of PD, stimulation and lesioning of the STN have some effects which are the same, but others which differ, in reversing cellular and behavioral changes induced by dopamine depletion. We compared the effects of short-term STN stimulation and lesions upon extracellular levels of dopamine and metabolites using in vivo microdialysis of the dorsal striatum of awake, intact and unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-lesioned rats. STN stimulation in control rats decreased striatal dopamine levels and caused a relative increase in dopamine metabolism, as expressed by HVA/dopamine and DOPAC/dopamine ratios. This suggests an increase in both vesicular dopamine release (metabolized to HVA), and release from the cytoplasmic dopamine pool (metabolized to DOPAC). STN lesions in control rats increased the HVA/dopamine ratio, also suggesting a relative increase in vesicular dopamine release. These results indicate that STN stimulation and lesioning can affect striatal dopamine metabolism in the intact system. In 6OHDA-lesioned rats at baseline, metabolic ratios were markedly decreas...Continue Reading
Differential effect of subthalamic nucleus ablation on dopamine D1 and D2 agonist-induced rotation in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats
Regional differences in the regulation of dopamine and noradrenaline release in medial frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen: a microdialysis study in the rat
Simultaneous microdialysis in striatum and substantia nigra suggests that the nigra is a major site of action of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine in the "hemiparkinsonian" rat
Differential effect of self-stimulation on dopamine release and metabolism in the rat medial frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum studied by in vivo microdialysis
Long-term survival of grafted cells, dopamine synthesis/release, synaptic connections, and functional recovery after transplantation of fetal nigral cells in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions in the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway.
The effects of dopamine-depleting brain lesions on the electrophysiological activity of rat substantia nigra dopamine neurons
Efferent projections of the subthalamic nucleus in the rat: light and electron microscopic analysis with the PHA-L method
Electrophysiological analysis of dopamine cells from the substantia nigra pars compacta of circling rats.
Partial lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway in the rat. Acceleration of transmitter synthesis and release of surviving dopaminergic neurones by drugs
Normalization of extracellular dopamine in striatum following recovery from a partial unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the substantia nigra: a microdialysis study in freely moving rats
Time course of adaptations in dopamine biosynthesis, metabolism, and release following nigrostriatal lesions: implications for behavioral recovery from brain injury
Reduction of apomorphine-induced rotational behaviour by subthalamic lesion in 6-OHDA lesioned rats is associated with a normalization of firing rate and discharge pattern of pars reticulata neurons
Responses of substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus complex to high frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in rats: electrophysiological data
Nonlinear relationship between impulse flow, dopamine release and dopamine elimination in the rat brain in vivo
Biotransformation of locally applied L-dopa in the corpus striatum of the hemi-parkinsonian rat studied with microdialysis
Effect of M1- and M2-muscarinic drugs on striatal dopamine release and metabolism: an in vivo microdialysis study comparing normal and 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced dopamine release in the striatum of intact and 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats: differential effects of monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitors
The unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model in behavioral brain research. Analysis of functional deficits, recovery and treatments
Dopamine release and uptake rates both decrease in the partially denervated striatum in proportion to the loss of dopamine terminals
Dopamine synthesis, uptake, metabolism, and receptors: relevance to gene therapy of Parkinson's disease
Subthalamic ablation reverses changes in basal ganglia oxidative metabolism and motor response to apomorphine induced by nigrostriatal lesion in rats
Physiological aspects of information processing in the basal ganglia of normal and parkinsonian primates
Circling behaviour in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats given pulsed levodopa is reduced more by lesions in the entopeduncular nucleus/substantia nigra pars reticulata than in the subthalamic nucleus
Comparison between the decrease of dopamine transporter and that of L-DOPA uptake for detection of early to advanced stage of Parkinson's disease in animal models
High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus influences striatal dopaminergic metabolism in the naive rat
Effect of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on the neuronal activities of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus in the rat
Alterations in rat striatal glutamate synapses following a lesion of the cortico- and/or nigrostriatal pathway
High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus increases the extracellular contents of striatal dopamine in normal and partially dopaminergic denervated rats
Increased extracellular DA and normal evoked DA release in the rat striatum after a partial lesion of the substantia nigra
High-frequency stimulation produces a transient blockade of voltage-gated currents in subthalamic neurons
Striatal dopaminergic metabolism is increased by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats
Deep brain stimulation of subthalamic neurons increases striatal dopamine metabolism and induces contralateral circling in freely moving 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats
High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus silences subthalamic neurons: a possible cellular mechanism in Parkinson's disease
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus does not increase the striatal dopamine concentration in parkinsonian humans
High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus enhances striatal dopamine release and metabolism in rats
High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves treadmill locomotion in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats
Electrophysiological and metabolic evidence that high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus bridles neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra reticulata
Lesion of subthalamic or motor thalamic nucleus in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats: effects on striatal glutamate and apomorphine-induced contralateral rotations
Increased expression of receptor phosphotyrosine phosphatase-β/ζ is associated with molecular, cellular, behavioral and cognitive schizophrenia phenotypes.
Effects of subthalamic nucleus lesions and stimulation upon corticostriatal afferents in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat.
Expanding the repertoire of L-DOPA's actions: A comprehensive review of its functional neurochemistry
Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Modulate Catecholamine Levels with Significant Relations to Clinical Outcome after Surgery in Patients with Parkinson's Disease
Effects of zona incerta lesions on striatal neurochemistry and behavioral asymmetry in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats
Effects of subthalamic nucleus lesions and stimulation upon glutamate levels in the dopamine-depleted rat striatum
The effects of electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system on neurochemical release in the rat striatum
Deep Brain Stimulation of Hemiparkinsonian Rats with Unipolar and Bipolar Electrodes for up to 6 Weeks: Behavioral Testing of Freely Moving Animals
Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Modulates Reward-Related Behavior: A Systematic Review
Effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on neuronal spiking activity in the substantia nigra pars compacta in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.
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