PMID: 46235Feb 1, 1975

Subtypes of hepatitis B antigen among patients and symptomless carriers

The Journal of Hygiene
H T Green, G C Turner


A study of the distribution of subtypes ad and ay among sera from hepatitis B antigen-positive subjects in North West England and North Wales revealed a marked contrast between symptomless carriers among whom ad predominated and patients with acute hepatitis the majority of whom were ay. Those with hepatitis associated with drug addiction or other forms of "needle transmission" were almost all of subtype ay. On the other hand in cases of "sporadic" hepatitis without evidence of parenteral exposure subtypes ad and ay are about equally distributed. These findings are similar to those reported from other countries in Northern Europe and North America. Although geographical and social factors clearly affect the distribution of the two subtypes it is suggested that the virus of subtype ay may be more readily transmitted than subtype ad by parenteral routes involving small amounts of blood.


Jun 19, 1971·Lancet·K ApostolovS Sherlock
Jun 1, 1971·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·G L Le Bouvier
Oct 7, 1972·Lancet·R WardE Kline
Nov 20, 1972·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·G L Le BouvierJ P Giles
Jan 19, 1974·Lancet·J HeathcoteD S Dane
Apr 6, 1974·Lancet·W D ReedA J Zuckerman
Apr 15, 1967·Lancet·P O JonesD C Watson
Sep 20, 1969·Lancet·R A FoxS Sherlock
Jan 1, 1973·Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases·P Skinhoj
Apr 30, 1970·The New England Journal of Medicine·A M PrinceG H Jeffries
Feb 14, 1970·British Medical Journal·Y E Cossart, J Vahrman
Feb 1, 1971·Journal of Clinical Pathology·G B WhiteG C Turner
Oct 1, 1971·Archives of Disease in Childhood·G C TurnerA A Porter


Jan 1, 1982·Journal of Medical Virology·J ShoreyL R Overby
Jan 1, 1978·Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases·P Ukkonen
Dec 1, 1978·The Journal of Hygiene·G C TurnerV D Blundell
Nov 1, 1978·Drug and Alcohol Dependence·T E SpiroH J Alter
Feb 1, 1995·European Journal of Epidemiology·J E EchevarríaJ M Echevarría
Sep 21, 2011·PloS One·Antonio Bernabe-OrtizKing K Holmes

Related Concepts

Acute Disease
Antigenic Specificity
Blood Transfusion
Carrier of Disorder
Immunodiffusion Measurement
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B Antigens
Substance-Related Disorders

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