The balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic tone provides exquisite control of heart rate and contractility and has also been shown to modulate coronary flow and inflammation. Understanding how autonomic balance is altered by cardiac disease is an active area of research, and developing new ways to control this balance provides insights into disease therapies. However, achieving acute neuron-specific stimulation of autonomic neurons can be difficult in experiments that measure the acute effects of nerve stimulation on the heart. Conventional electrical and pharmacological approaches can be spatially and temporally non-selective. Cell-specific expression of light-activated channels (channelrhodopsin, ChR2) is a powerful approach that enables control of the timing and distribution of cellular stimulation using light. We present such an optogenetic approach where parasympathetic cardiac neurons are selectively photoactivated at high temporal precision to initiate cholinergic-mediated slowing of heart rate. Mice were crossbred to express ChR2 in peripheral cholinergic neurons using Cre-Lox recombination driven by a choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter. Hearts from adult mice were excised, perfused, and the epicardium was il...Continue Reading
Morphological and electrophysiological correlates of atrioventricular nodal response to increased vagal activity
Vagal modulation of epicardial coronary artery size in dogs. A two-dimensional intravascular ultrasound study
The cholinergic 'pitfall': acetylcholine, a universal cell molecule in biological systems, including humans
Effects of direct sympathetic and vagus nerve stimulation on the physiology of the whole heart--a novel model of isolated Langendorff perfused rabbit heart with intact dual autonomic innervation
Decreased contractility of the left ventricle is induced by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, but not by vagal stimulation in rats
Differential chronotropic and dromotropic responses to focal stimulation of cardiac vagal ganglia in the rat
Interaction between direct sympathetic and vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate in the isolated rabbit heart
Functional anatomy of the murine sinus node: high-resolution optical mapping of ankyrin-B heterozygous mice.
Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics
Immunohistochemical characterization of the intrinsic cardiac neural plexus in whole-mount mouse heart preparations
Melanocortin-4 receptors expressed by cholinergic neurons regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis
Habenula "cholinergic" neurons co-release glutamate and acetylcholine and activate postsynaptic neurons via distinct transmission modes
Vagal stimulation, through its nicotinic action, limits infarct size and the inflammatory response to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion
Neuroanatomy of the murine cardiac conduction system: a combined stereomicroscopic and fluorescence immunohistochemical study
3D multifunctional integumentary membranes for spatiotemporal cardiac measurements and stimulation across the entire epicardium
Optogenetic release of norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic neurons alters mechanical and electrical function
Optogenetics-enabled assessment of viral gene and cell therapy for restoration of cardiac excitability
Effects of commonly used inotropes on myocardial function and oxygen consumption under constant ventricular loading conditions
Characterization of Channelrhodopsin and Archaerhodopsin in Cholinergic Neurons of Cre-Lox Transgenic Mice
Optogenetic termination of ventricular arrhythmias in the whole heart: towards biological cardiac rhythm management
Chronic activation of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons improves cardiac function during left ventricular hypertrophy-induced heart failure
Atrial GIRK Channels Mediate the Effects of Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Heart Rate Dynamics and Arrhythmogenesis
Identification of peripheral neural circuits that regulate heart rate using optogenetic and viral vector strategies
Combining tissue engineering and optical imaging approaches to explore interactions along the neuro-cardiac axis
Benefits of pharmacological and electrical cholinergic stimulation in hypertension and heart failure.
Light-accelerating oxidase-mimicking activity of black phosphorus quantum dots for colorimetric detection of acetylcholinesterase activity and inhibitor screening.
The Effects of Repetitive Use and Pathological Remodeling on Channelrhodopsin Function in Cardiomyocytes.
Inflammation plays a significant role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, an understanding of these endogenous processes is critical for evaluating the risks and potential treatment strategies. Discover the latest research on cardiovascular inflammation here.