Sulfamethoxazole Leaching from Manure-Amended Sandy Loam Soil as Affected by the Application of Jujube Wood Waste-Derived Biochar.

Molecules : a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mohammad I Al-WabelAbdullah S F Al-Farraj

Abstract

Vertical translocation/leaching of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) through manure-amended sandy loam soil and significance of biochar application on SMZ retention were investigated in this study. Soil was filled in columns and amended with manure spiked with 13.75 mg kg-1 (S1), 27.5 mg kg-1 (S2), and 55 mg kg-1 (S3) of SMZ. Jujube (Ziziphus jujube L.) wood waste was transformed into biochar and mixed with S3 at 0.5% (S3-B1), 1.0% (S3-B2), and 2.0% (S3-B3) ratio. Cumulative SMZ leaching was lowest at pH 3.0, which increased by 16% and 34% at pH 5.0 and 7.0, respectively. A quicker release and translocation of SMZ from manure occurred during the initial 40 h, which gradually reduced over time. Intraparticle diffusion and Elovich kinetic models were the best fitted to leaching data. S3 exhibited the highest release and vertical translocation of SMZ, followed by S2, and S1; however, SMZ leaching was reduced by more than twofold in S3-B3. At pH 3.0, 2.0% biochar resulted in 99% reduction in SMZ leaching within 72 h, while 1.0% and 0.5% biochar applications reduced SMZ leaching to 99% within 120 and 144 h, respectively, in S3. The higher SMZ retention onto biochar could be due to electrostatic interactions, H-bonding, and π-π electron donor a...Continue Reading

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