In individual cases of tuberculosis surgical therapy is part of an interdisciplinary therapeutic concept. Identifying the optimal point of time for surgery has a strong impact on the further course of the healing process and thus on the prognosis. Indications for surgical therapy are: 1. multi-drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB), 2. late-onset complications (apergilloma, tuberculosis of the tracheobronchial tree or of mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes), 3. tuberculosis of the pleura. In MDR-TB an individual concept for therapy based on all chemotherapeutic options as well as thorough planning of the surgical procedure must be provided. Resections in tuberculotic late-onset complications should be performed in patients with persisting cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis as well as in patients with post tuberculosis complex; main goal is the prevention of tuberculotic relapse. Surgical strategies for tuberculosis of the pleura include the debridement of the pleural cavity in video assisted surgical technique, decortication, partial thoracoplasty with musculoplasty or chest fenestration.