(1) To examine survivors with traumatic brain injury (TBI) for symptoms of avoidance and intrusion, two dimensions of post-traumatic stress (PTS) at 6 and 12 months post-injury. (2) To identify risk factors associated with these symptoms. Prospective follow-up study. Georgia and North Carolina Model Brain Injury Systems participants (n = 198) with mild (19%), moderate (21%) and severe (60%) TBI were interviewed by telephone at 6 and 12 months post-injury. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) was used to identify intrusion and avoidance symptoms. Symptoms consistent with severe PTS increased from 11% at 6 months to 16% 12 months post-injury (p < 0.003). African-Americans (p < 0.01) and women (p < 0.05) reported greater symptomatology at 12 months compared to their counterparts. TBI severity and memory of the event were not associated with PTS-like symptoms. Symptoms increased over time when examined by race, injury intent, gender and age (p < 0.05). Regardless of severity, survivors with TBI are at risk for developing symptoms consistent with PTS. Amnesia for the injury event was not protective against developing these symptoms. African-Americans appear to be at greatest risk.
Comparison of psychosocial adaptation and sexual function of survivors of advanced Hodgkin disease treated by MOPP, ABVD, or MOPP alternating with ABVD
Adverse effects of prolonged hyperventilation in patients with severe head injury: a randomized clinical trial
Impact of Event Scale: a cross-validation study and some empirical evidence supporting a conceptual model of stress response syndromes
Field triage of trauma patients based upon the ability to follow commands: a study in 29,573 injured patients
Comparison of indices of traumatic brain injury severity as predictors of neurobehavioral outcome in children
Problems with initial Glasgow Coma Scale assessment caused by prehospital treatment of patients with head injuries: results of a national survey
Course of insight disorder and emotional dysfunction following closed head injury: a controlled cross-sectional follow-up study
Predicting PTSD in trauma survivors: prospective evaluation of self-report and clinician-administered instruments
Outcome after major trauma: discharge and 6-month follow-up results from the Trauma Recovery Project
Juvenile male rape victims: is the level of post-traumatic stress related to personality and parenting?
The influence of traumatic brain injury on acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder following motor vehicle accidents
Outcome after major trauma: 12-month and 18-month follow-up results from the Trauma Recovery Project
Previous exposure to trauma and PTSD effects of subsequent trauma: results from the Detroit Area Survey of Trauma
Incidence and prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in severely injured accident victims
Delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and predictors of first onset of PTSD in patients with anxiety disorders
Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following a head injury: does amnesia for the event influence the development of symptoms?
Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder at three months after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury
Brief report: prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after severe traumatic brain injury in a representative community sample
Gender differences in long-term posttraumatic stress disorder outcomes after major trauma: women are at higher risk of adverse outcomes than men
Chronicity in posttraumatic stress disorder and predictors of the course of posttraumatic stress disorder among primary care patients
Post-traumatic amnesia and the nature of post-traumatic stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury
Are metacognitive processes associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity following acquired brain injury?
Psychosocial and psychological factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder following traumatic brain injury in adult civilian populations: a systematic review
Identifying longitudinal trajectories of emotional distress symptoms 5 years after traumatic brain injury
Community integration, social support and life satisfaction in relation to symptoms 3 years after mild traumatic brain injury
Neurobehavioural symptoms 1 year after traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study of the relationship between race/ethnicity and symptoms
Do racial/ethnic differences exist in post-injury outcomes after TBI? A comprehensive review of the literature
Severity of injury does not have any impact on posttraumatic stress symptoms in severely injured patients
Physical and psychological long-term outcome after traumatic brain injury in children and adult patients
Impact of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder on functional outcome and health-related quality of life of patients with mild traumatic brain injury
Reduced amygdala volume is associated with deficits in inhibitory control: a voxel- and surface-based morphometric analysis of comorbid PTSD/mild TBI
Screening for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in a Civilian Emergency Department Population with Traumatic Brain Injury
Change in regional cerebral function in l'aquila earthquake survivors with post-traumatic stress disorder: preliminary findings
Trajectories of Life Satisfaction Over the First 10 Years After Traumatic Brain Injury: Race, Gender, and Functional Ability
Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following Mild, Moderate, and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: The Role of Posttraumatic Amnesia
Prevalence, assessment, and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the evidence
Racial and ethnic disparities in functional, psychosocial, and neurobehavioral outcomes after brain injury
Assessing the Impact of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms on the Resting-State Default Mode Network in a Military Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sample
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Civilian Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prevalence Rates
The trajectory of symptom burden in exposed and unexposed survivors of a major avalanche disaster: a 30 year long-term follow-up study
Brain Injury & Trauma
brain injury after impact to the head is due to both immediate mechanical effects and delayed responses of neural tissues.
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