DOI: 10.1101/493817Dec 13, 2018Paper

Synergy and remarkable specificity of antimicrobial peptides in vivo using a systematic knockout approach

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Mark A HansonBruno Lemaitre

Abstract

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are host-encoded antibiotics that combat invading microorganisms. These short, cationic peptides have been implicated in many biological processes, primarily involving innate immunity. In vitro studies have shown AMPs kill bacteria and fungi at physiological concentrations, but little validation has been done in vivo. We utilised CRISPR gene editing to delete all known immune inducible AMPs of Drosophila, namely: 4 Attacins, 4 Cecropins, 2 Diptericins, Drosocin, Drosomycin, Metchnikowin and Defensin. Using individual and multiple knockouts, including flies lacking all 14 AMP genes, we characterize the in vivo function of individual and groups of AMPs against diverse bacterial and fungal pathogens. We found that Drosophila AMPs act primarily against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, acting either additively or synergistically. We also describe remarkable specificity wherein certain AMPs contribute the bulk of microbicidal activity against specific pathogens, providing functional demonstrations of highly specific AMP-pathogen interactions in an in vivo setting.

Related Concepts

Antibiotics
Classification
Drosophila
Fungi
Genes
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Attacin antibacterial protein, insect
Cecropin A
Defensins
Neutrophil basic proteins

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