Jan 1, 1996

Synthesis, modifications, and turnover of proteins during aging

Experimental Gerontology
S I Rattan

Abstract

Slowing down of bulk protein synthesis is one of the most commonly observed biochemical changes during aging. The implications and consequences of slower rates of protein synthesis are manifold, including a decrease in the availability of enzymes for the maintenance, repair, and normal metabolic functioning of the cell, an inefficient removal of inactive, abnormal, and damaged macromolecules in the cell, the inefficiency of the intracellular and intercellular signalling pathways, and a decrease in the production and secretion of hormones, antibodies, neurotransmitters, and the components of the extracellular matrix. Age-related changes in the activity, specificity, and stability of a large number of proteins have been reported. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for such alterations are still poorly understood. Studies on various components of the protein synthetic machinery have revealed a decline in the efficiency and accuracy of ribosomes, an increase in the levels of rRNA and tRNA, and a decrease in the amounts and activities of elongation factors. Because posttranslational modifications of proteins determine their activity and stability, alterations in the extent and level of various modifications such as phosph...Continue Reading

  • References56
  • Citations98

References

Mentioned in this Paper

Metabolic Process, Cellular
Biochemical Pathway
Protein Methylation
Enzymes, antithrombotic
Post-Translational Protein Processing
MT-TA gene
Protoplasm
Extracellular Matrix
Protein Phosphorylation
Triplet Codon-amino Acid Adaptor Activity

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