Nov 25, 1995

Synthesis of cysteine-containing dipeptides by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

Nucleic Acids Research
H Jakubowski

Abstract

Arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS) catalyses AMP- and PPi-independent deacylation of Arg-tRNAArg in the presence of cysteine. A dipeptide, Arg-Cys, is a product of this deacylation reaction. Similar reaction with homocysteine yields Arg-Hcy. Arginine is a noncompetitive inhibitor of the cysteine-dependent deacylation which indicates that cysteine binds to the enzyme-Arg-tRNAArg complex at a site separate from the arginine binding site. In the presence of arginine, [14C]Arg-tRNAArg is deacylated at a rate similar to the rate of its spontaneous deacylation in solution and [14C]arginine is a product. Experiments with cysteine derivatives indicate that the -SH group is essential for the reaction whereas -NH2 and -COOH groups are not. Thioesters of arginine are formed with 3-mercaptopropionic acid, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and dithiothreitol. These data suggest that formation of the dipeptide Arg-Cys involves a thioester intermediate, S-(L-arginyl)-L-cysteine, which is not observed because of the rapid rearrangement to form a stable peptide bond. Facile intramolecular reaction results from the favorable geometric arrangement of the alpha-amino group of cysteine with respect to the thioester formed in the initial reaction. Similar reactions,...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Derivatives
Alkalescens-Dispar Group
Valine-tRNA Ligase
Thioester
MT-TA gene
Proteins, Recombinant DNA
Triplet Codon-amino Acid Adaptor Activity
Dithiothreitol
Carbon Radioisotopes
Transfer RNA

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