Synthetic double-stranded RNAs are adjuvants for the induction of T helper 1 and humoral immune responses to human papillomavirus in rhesus macaques

PLoS Pathogens
Christiane Stahl-HennigRalf Ignatius

Abstract

Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are being considered as adjuvants for the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, as in the design of vaccines. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytoidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is recognized by TLR3 and other intracellular receptors. Poly ICLC is a poly I:C analogue, which has been stabilized against the serum nucleases that are present in the plasma of primates. Poly I:C(12)U, another analogue, is less toxic but also less stable in vivo than poly I:C, and TLR3 is essential for its recognition. To study the effects of these compounds on the induction of protein-specific immune responses in an animal model relevant to humans, rhesus macaques were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or human papillomavirus (HPV)16 capsomeres with or without dsRNA or a control adjuvant, the TLR9 ligand CpG-C. All dsRNA compounds served as adjuvants for KLH-specific cellular immune responses, with the highest proliferative responses being observed with 2 mg/animal poly ICLC (p = 0.002) or 6 mg/animal poly I:C(12)U (p = 0.001) when compared with immunization with KLH alone. Notably, poly ICLC -- but not CpG-C given at the same dose -- also helped t...Continue Reading

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
ELISA
ELISAs
FCS
in vitro transcription

Related Concepts

Keyhole-limpet hemocyanin
Immunologic Adjuvants
Antibodies, Viral
Antibody Formation
Antigens, Viral
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Hemocyanin
Macaca mulatta
RNA, Double-Stranded
T-helper Cell Type 1

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