Systematic Engineering of a Protein Nanocage for High-Yield, Site-Specific Modification

ChemRxiv
Daniel D BrauerMatthew B Francis

Abstract

Site-specific protein modification is a widely-used strategy to attach drugs, imaging agents, or other useful small molecules to protein carriers. N-terminal modification is particularly useful as a high-yielding, site-selective modification strategy that can be compatible with a wide array of proteins. However, this modification strategy is incompatible with proteins with buried or sterically-hindered N termini, such as virus-like particles like the well-studied MS2 bacteriophage coat protein. To assess VLPs with improved compatibility with these techniques, we generated a targeted library based on the MS2-derived protein cage with N-terminal proline residues followed by three variable positions. We subjected the library to assembly, heat, and chemical selections, and we identified variants that were modified in high yield with no reduction in thermostability. Positive charge adjacent to the native N terminus is surprisingly beneficial for successful extension, and over 50% of the highest performing variants contained positive charge at this position. Taken together, these studies described nonintuitive design rules governing N-terminal extensions and identified successful extensions with high modification potential.

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Glut1 Deficiency

Glut1 deficiency, an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier, is characterized by mental and motor developmental delays and infantile seizures. Follow the latest research on Glut1 deficiency with this feed.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is a type of anxiety disorder that involves excessive distress and anxiety with separation. This may include separation from places or people to which they have a strong emotional connection with. It often affects children more than adults. Here is the latest research on separation anxiety.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved