Tamoxifen modulates protein kinase C via oxidative stress in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells.

The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Usha GundimedaRayudu Gopalakrishna


Nonsteroidal agent tamoxifen (Tam), a therapeutic/chemopreventive agent for breast cancer, inhibits protein kinase C (PKC), which is considered to be one of its extra-estrogen receptor sites of action. This drug is required at higher (>100 microM) concentrations to inhibit PKC in the test tube, whereas it is required at lower (1-10 microM) concentrations to induce inhibition of cell growth in estrogen receptor-negative cell types. To identify additional mechanisms of action of Tam on PKC and cell growth, studies with MDA-MB-231, an estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinoma cell type, have been carried out. Upon treatment with 5-20 microM Tam, a cytosol to membrane translocation of PKC occurred within 30 min, which was then followed by a down-regulation of the enzyme within 2 h. A transient generation of Ca2+/lipid-independent activated form of PKC was observed during this period. Rapidly growing cells require nearly 2-3-fold lower concentrations (2-5 microM) of Tam than do confluent cells to induce changes in PKC. Furthermore, phorbol ester binding observed with intact cells also decreased in Tam-treated cells only under the conditions PKC was inactivated. Unlike phorbol esters, Tam did not directly support the membrane assoc...Continue Reading


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