Tardive dyskinesia and deficit schizophrenia

Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Susan TelferBrian Kirkpatrick


Despite comparable antipsychotic exposure, some patients experience involuntary movements yet others do not. Negative symptoms have been associated with tardive dyskinesia (TD), but it is not certain whether this is an association with primary negative symptoms or the effects of medications. The aim of the present study was to determine whether patients with deficit schizophrenia (who have primary negative symptoms) are more likely to experience TD than those with non-deficit schizophrenia. In 2006, all the people with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia in Nithsdale, Southwest Scotland, were identified using the 'key informant' method. These patients were categorized into those with and without the deficit syndrome and assessed for the presence of TD. Patients were also assessed for akathisia and extrapyramidal side effects. Of the 131 people assessed, 31 were categorized as having deficit schizophrenia (23.7%) and 100 people (76.3%) as non-deficit. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to age, antipsychotic exposure, and duration of illness. There was a significant association between deficit features and TD with an odds ratio = 2.97 [95% CI 1.128-6.88, P = 0.009]. Our findings support the proposal that...Continue Reading


Nov 1, 1989·Psychiatry Research·Brian KirkpatrickWilliam T Carpenter
Jan 1, 1985·Schizophrenia Bulletin·T J Crow
May 1, 1988·The American Journal of Psychiatry·William T CarpenterA M Wagman
Jun 1, 1985·The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease·R D LaneS I Kramer
Mar 1, 1982·The American Journal of Psychiatry·M A Richardson, T J Craig
Apr 1, 1982·Archives of General Psychiatry·J M Kane, J M Smith
Aug 1, 1994·The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease·Brian KirkpatrickWilliam T Carpenter
Aug 1, 1994·Archives of General Psychiatry·W S FentonT McGlashan
Apr 1, 1993·Psychiatry Research·Brian KirkpatrickWilliam T Carpenter
May 1, 1996·Schizophrenia Research·Brian KirkpatrickT McGlashan
Nov 15, 1996·Schizophrenia Research·Brian KirkpatrickEvelyn Bromet
Sep 12, 1998·The American Journal of Psychiatry·Brian KirkpatrickEvelyn Bromet
Feb 7, 2001·Schizophrenia Bulletin·Brian KirkpatrickWilliam T Carpenter
Feb 15, 2001·Archives of General Psychiatry·Brian KirkpatrickWilliam T Carpenter
Oct 3, 2001·The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease·Erick Messias, Brian Kirkpatrick
Oct 3, 2001·The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease·Cenk TekRobin G McCreadie
Aug 3, 2002·The American Journal of Psychiatry·Brian KirkpatrickRobin G McCreadie
Aug 24, 2002·The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease·Brian KirkpatrickJose L Vazquez-Barquero
Jul 3, 2003·Schizophrenia Research·Brian KirkpatrickCenk Tek
Oct 7, 2004·Archives of General Psychiatry·Erick MessiasSonia Dollfus
Sep 17, 2005·Schizophrenia Bulletin·Faith DickersonRobert Yolken
Dec 13, 2006·Schizophrenia Bulletin·Alex S CohenRobert W Buchanan
Feb 12, 2008·Schizophrenia Research·Brian KirkpatrickDavid LaPorte
Dec 3, 2008·Schizophrenia Research·Brian KirkpatrickMiguel Bernardo


Oct 3, 2013·Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience : JPN·Michael CoesmansJosef N van der Geest
Feb 25, 2014·Schizophrenia Bulletin·Brian Kirkpatrick
Aug 11, 2012·The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental Science·Rajeev KrishnadasRobin G McCreadie
Dec 24, 2013·Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience : JPN·Gary Remington, Margaret Hahn
Mar 1, 2012·Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica·L DocxB Sabbe
Jul 6, 2013·Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry·Jing Qin WuXiangyang Zhang
Aug 26, 2014·Frontiers in Psychiatry·Dusan HirjakPhilipp A Thomann
Jun 1, 2016·Schizophrenia Research·Armida MucciSilvana Galderisi
Apr 26, 2020·Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology·Stanley N CaroffChuck Yonan
Jun 3, 2017·Schizophrenia Bulletin·Brian KirkpatrickSilvana Galderisi

Related Concepts

Etat Marbre
Factor Construct Rating Scales (Fcrs)
Schizophrenic Psychology
Antipsychotic Effect
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Dyskinetic Syndrome
Antipsychotic Agents

Related Feeds

Antipsychotic Drugs

Antipsychotic drugs are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Discover the latest research on antipsychotic drugs here