Tardive dyskinesia: therapeutic options for an increasingly common disorder

Neurotherapeutics : the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Leslie J CloudStewart A Factor

Abstract

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious, often disabling, movement disorder that is caused by medications that block dopamine receptors (i.e., neuroleptics, anti-emetics). There is currently no standard treatment approach for physicians confronted with such patients. This may be the result of notions that TD is disappearing because of the switch to second-generation antipsychotic agents and that it is largely reversible. In this article we demonstrate that second-generation antipsychotics do, indeed, cause TD and, in fact, the frequency is likely higher than expected because of growing off-label uses and a tripling of prescriptions written in the last 10 years. In addition, studies demonstrate that TD actually remits in only a minority of patients when these drugs are withdrawn. Furthermore, neuroleptic agents are often utilized to treat TD, despite prolonged exposure being a risk factor for irreversibility. The outcome of these trends is a growing population afflicted with TD. We review non-neuroleptic agents that have shown positive results in small, early-phase, blinded trials, including tetrabenazine, amantadine, levetiracetam, piracetam, clonazepam, propranolol, vitamin B6, and Ginkgo biloba. Other options, such as botulinum ...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Diet Therapy
Etat Marbre
Anti-Dyskinesia Agents
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Botulinum Toxin Type A
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Movement Disorders
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
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