Targeted functional imaging of estrogen receptors with 99mTc-GAP-EDL

European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Nobukazu TakahashiE Edmund Kim


To evaluate the feasibility of using (99m)Tc-glutamate peptide-estradiol in functional imaging of estrogen receptor-positive [ER(+)] diseases. 3-Aminoethyl estradiol (EDL) was conjugated to glutamate peptide (GAP) to yield GAP-EDL. Cellular uptake studies of (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL were conducted in ER(+) cell lines (MCF-7, 13762 and T47D). To demonstrate whether GAP-EDL increases MAP kinase activation, Western blot analysis of GAP-EDL was performed in 13762 cells. Biodistribution was conducted in nine rats with 13762 breast tumors at 0.5-4 h. Each rat was administered (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL. Two animal models (rats and rabbits) were created to ascertain whether tumor uptake of (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL was via an ER-mediated process. In the tumor model, breast tumor-bearing rats were pretreated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) 1 h prior to receiving (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL. In the endometriosis model, part of the rabbit uterine tissue was dissected and grafted to the peritoneal wall. The rabbit was administered with (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL. There was a 10-40% reduction in uptake of (99m)Tc-GAP-EDL in cells treated with DES or tamoxifen compared with untreated cells. Western blot analysis showed an ERK1/2 phosphorylation process with GAP-EDL. Biodistribution studies show...Continue Reading


Jan 1, 1989·Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation·G A DunselmanJ L Evers
Dec 1, 1988·European Journal of Cancer & Clinical Oncology·J P van NettenC Fletcher
Jan 1, 1987·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·G M ClarkW L McGuire
Aug 1, 1981·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·E H VerhaerenJ A Lemli
Jun 1, 1996·Endocrinology·C RaynalC Chenu
Oct 13, 1998·Scientific American·V C Jordan
Mar 1, 2002·European Radiology·Bo Frennby, Gunnar Sterner
Jul 20, 2002·European Journal of Radiology·Amy Piepsz
Jul 13, 2004·Nuclear Medicine and Biology·Antonio AliagaFrancois Bénard
May 13, 2005·Annals of Surgical Oncology·C RousseauI Resche

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Apr 4, 2007·European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging·Rakesh Kumar
Mar 5, 2009·Molecular Cancer Therapeutics·Ji Yuan WuRazelle Kurzrock
Mar 28, 2013·International Journal of Biomedical Imaging·Qingqing Meng, Zheng Li
Oct 16, 2015·Nuclear Medicine and Biology·Xiaotian XiaXiaoli Lan
Jul 21, 2016·Nuclear Medicine Communications·Hao LiuMei Tian

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

Landau Kleffner syndrome (LKS), also called infantile acquired aphasia, acquired epileptic aphasia, or aphasia with convulsive disorder, is a rare childhood neurological syndrome characterized by the sudden or gradual development of aphasia (the inability to understand or express language) and an abnormal electroencephalogram. Discover the latest research on LKS here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.