Understanding adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is important for vaccine development, interpreting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis, and calibration of pandemic control measures. Using HLA class I and II predicted peptide "megapools," circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in ∼70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. CD4+ T cell responses to spike, the main target of most vaccine efforts, were robust and correlated with the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA titers. The M, spike, and N proteins each accounted for 11%-27% of the total CD4+ response, with additional responses commonly targeting nsp3, nsp4, ORF3a, and ORF8, among others. For CD8+ T cells, spike and M were recognized, with at least eight SARS-CoV-2 ORFs targeted. Importantly, we detected SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells in ∼40%-60% of unexposed individuals, suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition between circulating "common cold" coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.
Early death after feline infectious peritonitis virus challenge due to recombinant vaccinia virus immunization
Unique and conserved features of genome and proteome of SARS-coronavirus, an early split-off from the coronavirus group 2 lineage
Selective CD4+ T cell help for antibody responses to a large viral pathogen: deterministic linkage of specificities
Development of a nucleocapsid-based human coronavirus immunoassay and estimates of individuals exposed to coronavirus in a U.S. metropolitan population
Antibody-dependent enhancement occurs upon re-infection with the identical serotype virus in feline infectious peritonitis virus infection
Evasion by stealth: inefficient immune activation underlies poor T cell response and severe disease in SARS-CoV-infected mice
Five HLA-DP molecules frequently expressed in the worldwide human population share a common HLA supertypic binding specificity
T cell responses are required for protection from clinical disease and for virus clearance in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-infected mice
Divergent motifs but overlapping binding repertoires of six HLA-DQ molecules frequently expressed in the worldwide human population
Functional classification of class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules reveals seven different supertypes and a surprising degree of repertoire sharing across supertypes
Age-related increases in PGD(2) expression impair respiratory DC migration, resulting in diminished T cell responses upon respiratory virus infection in mice
Preexisting influenza-specific CD4+ T cells correlate with disease protection against influenza challenge in humans
Comprehensive analysis of dengue virus-specific responses supports an HLA-linked protective role for CD8+ T cells
Development and validation of a broad scheme for prediction of HLA class II restricted T cell epitopes
Human CD8+ T-Cell Responses Against the 4 Dengue Virus Serotypes Are Associated With Distinct Patterns of Protein Targets
Lack of allergy to timothy grass pollen is not a passive phenomenon but associated with the allergen-specific modulation of immune reactivity
Th1 versus Th2 T cell polarization by whole-cell and acellular childhood pertussis vaccines persists upon re-immunization in adolescence and adulthood
Cytokine-Independent Detection of Antigen-Specific Germinal Center T Follicular Helper Cells in Immunized Nonhuman Primates Using a Live Cell Activation-Induced Marker Technique
A Cytokine-Independent Approach To Identify Antigen-Specific Human Germinal Center T Follicular Helper Cells and Rare Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells in Blood
A Quantitative Analysis of Complexity of Human Pathogen-Specific CD4 T Cell Responses in Healthy M. tuberculosis Infected South Africans
Definition of Human Epitopes Recognized in Tetanus Toxoid and Development of an Assay Strategy to Detect Ex Vivo Tetanus CD4+ T Cell Responses
Successive annual influenza vaccination induces a recurrent oligoclonotypic memory response in circulating T follicular helper cells
NetMHCpan-4.0: Improved Peptide-MHC Class I Interaction Predictions Integrating Eluted Ligand and Peptide Binding Affinity Data
Comparative analysis of activation induced marker (AIM) assays for sensitive identification of antigen-specific CD4 T cells
Recurrent group A Streptococcus tonsillitis is an immunosusceptibility disease involving antibody deficiency and aberrant TFH cells
Anti-spike IgG causes severe acute lung injury by skewing macrophage responses during acute SARS-CoV infection
SARS-CoV-2-reactive interferon-γ-producing CD8+ T cells in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019.
Work at inpatient care units is associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; a cross-sectional study of 8679 healthcare workers in Sweden
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, original antigenic sin, and antibody-dependent enhancement: ménage à trois.
Global seasonality of human seasonal coronaviruses: a clue for post-pandemic circulating season of SARS-CoV-2 virus?
SARS-CoV-2 growth, furin-cleavage-site adaptation and neutralization using serum from acutely infected hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
Decline of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM and IgA in convalescent COVID-19 patients within 100 days after hospital discharge.
Magnitude and kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and their relationship to disease severity.
Cross-neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 is present in currently available intravenous immunoglobulins
Leveraging on the genomics and immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 for vaccines development: prospects and challenges.
Screening for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in convalescent plasma in Brazil: Preliminary lessons from a voluntary convalescent donor program
Change in Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 Over 60 Days Among Health Care Personnel in Nashville, Tennessee.
"Stay at Home, Protect the National Health Service, Save Lives": A cost benefit analysis of the lockdown in the United Kingdom.
Immune monitoring facilitates the clinical decision in multifocal COVID-19 of a pancreas-kidney transplant patient
S Protein-Reactive IgG and Memory B Cell Production after Human SARS-CoV-2 Infection Includes Broad Reactivity to the S2 Subunit
Of Mice and Men: The Coronavirus MHV and Mouse Models as a Translational Approach to Understand SARS-CoV-2
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