Temperature-dependent insertion and adsorption of lithium on spinel Li4 Ti5 O12 (111) thin films - an angle-resolved XPS study

Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP
Jihyun KimR Jürgen Behm


Aiming at a detailed understanding of the Li adsorption and insertion behavior on/into lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12, LTO), which is a promising anode material in Li-ion batteries, we have investigated the interaction of vapor deposited Li with LTO in the temperature range between 80 K and room temperature by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). The experiments were performed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, and the presence of additional Li species was detected by the formation of Ti3+ in the Ti 2p core level signal due to charge transfer from adsorbed/inserted Li to Ti. Even at 80 K most of the deposited Li diffuses into the bulk of LTO, reflecting the facile insertion and diffusion of Li into and in LTO. Deposition of up to 3 monolayers equivalent (MLE) of Li at 80 K results in an increase in Li concentration in the surface region (topmost 6 nm), up to a stoichiometry of Li4+xTi5O12 with x > 0.3, and slightly lower values in the near-surface region (topmost 1 nm). For higher Li doses, the amount of Li in the near-surface region, including adsorbed Li, increases more than the concentration in the underlying surface region. This is attributed to the blocking of diffusion channels by inserted Li at a s...Continue Reading


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Methods Mentioned

nuclear magnetic resonance
scanning electron microscopy

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