PMID: 24383372Jan 5, 2014

TGF-beta1-Induced MAPK activation promotes collagen synthesis, nodule formation, redox stress and cellular senescence in porcine aortic valve interstitial cells

The Journal of Heart Valve Disease
Dividutta DasJennifer A Kennedy


Aortic valve stenosis is a major cause of valve replacement, particularly in the elderly. TGF-beta1 is upregulated in stenotic valves and induces calcification and collagen synthesis in cultured valve interstitial cells. It has been shown previously that TGF-beta1 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these cells in association with calcifying nodule formation, but the cellular signaling pathways responsible for these TGF-beta1-induced effects are not well defined. Cultured porcine aortic valve interstitial cells were used to investigate the effects of inhibitors of TGF-beta1 signaling pathways on 3H-proline incorporation into the extracellular matrix, the peak number of calcifying nodules formed, redox stress as dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) fluorescence, and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining. Nodule formation and proline incorporation were inhibited by SB431542, implicating the Smad pathway, by SB203580, implicating the P38 MAPK pathway, and by U0126, implicating the Mekl/2/Erk1/2 pathway in both processes. Fasudil, an inhibitor of the Rho kinase pathway, was selective in inhibiting nodule formation but not proline incorporation. It was verified that Smad2 phosphorylation, Erk1/2 phosphorylation ...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Biochemical Pathway
U 0126
Cell Aging
Entire Aortic Valve
MAPK3 wt Allele
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14
AS 2

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Sexual Dimorphism in Neurodegeneration

There exist sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, multiple sclerosis is more common in women, whereas Parkinson’s disease is more common in men. Here is the latest research on sexual dimorphism in neurodegeneration

HLA Genetic Variation

HLA genetic variation has been found to confer risk for a wide variety of diseases. Identifying these associations and understanding their molecular mechanisms is ongoing and holds promise for the development of therapeutics. Find the latest research on HLA genetic variation here.

Super-resolution Microscopy

Super-resolution microscopy is the term commonly given to fluorescence microscopy techniques with resolutions that are not limited by the diffraction of light. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to super-resolution microscopy.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.

Brain Lower Grade Glioma

Low grade gliomas in the brain form from oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and are the slowest-growing glioma in adults. Discover the latest research on these brain tumors here.

CD4/CD8 Signaling

Cluster of differentiation 4 and 8 (CD8 and CD8) are glycoproteins founds on the surface of immune cells. Here is the latest research on their role in cell signaling pathways.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.