Jan 8, 2008

Thalidomide induces limb anomalies by PTEN stabilization, Akt suppression, and stimulation of caspase-dependent cell death

Molecular and Cellular Biology
Jürgen KnoblochUlrich Rüther

Abstract

Thalidomide, a drug used for the treatment of multiple myeloma and inflammatory diseases, is also a teratogen that causes birth defects, such as limb truncations and microphthalmia, in humans. Thalidomide-induced limb truncations result from increased cell death during embryonic limb development and consequential disturbance of limb outgrowth. Here we demonstrate in primary human embryonic cells and in the chicken embryo that thalidomide-induced signaling through bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) protects active PTEN from proteasomal degradation, resulting in suppression of Akt signaling. As a consequence, caspase-dependent cell death is stimulated by the intrinsic and Fas death receptor apoptotic pathway. Most importantly, thalidomide-induced limb deformities and microphthalmia in chicken embryos could be rescued by a pharmacological PTEN inhibitor as well as by insulin, a stimulant of Akt signaling. We therefore conclude that perturbation of PTEN/Akt signaling and stimulation of caspase activity is central to the teratogenic effects of thalidomide.

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Mentioned in this Paper

Embryo
Biochemical Pathway
Central Nervous System Stimulant [EPC]
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Apoptosis, Intrinsic Pathway
Receptor Down-Regulation
Paracrine Protein Factors
Protein kinase B gamma
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Limb Structure

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