The ABCs of granule-mediated cytotoxicity: new weapons in the arsenal

Nature Reviews. Immunology
J Lieberman


Granule exocytosis is the main pathway for the immune elimination of virus-infected cells and tumour cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. After target-cell recognition, release of the cytotoxic granule contents into the immunological synapse formed between the killer cell and its target induces apoptosis. The granules contain two membrane-perturbing proteins, perforin and granulysin, and a family of serine proteases known as granzymes, complexed with the proteoglycan serglycin. In this review, I discuss recent insights into the mechanisms of granule-mediated cytotoxicity, focusing on how granzymes A, B and C and granulysin activate cell death through caspase-independent pathways.


Feb 1, 1992·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·L ShiA H Greenberg
May 1, 1995·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·M IrmlerJ Tschopp
Nov 22, 1994·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·B LowinJ Tschopp
Aug 16, 1994·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·H S SuidanJ Tschopp
Jun 11, 1996·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·A MüllbacherM M Simon
Nov 12, 1996·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·C T PhamT J Ley
Apr 1, 1997·Seminars in Immunology·P A HenkartA Sarin
Aug 19, 1997·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·P J BeresfordJ Lieberman
Jan 5, 1999·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·G MacDonaldA H Greenberg
Dec 28, 1999·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·D M DavisJ L Strominger
Feb 7, 2001·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·S A FraserD Hudig
Apr 26, 2000·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Y KawasakiH Takayama
Nov 1, 2000·Cell·M L Dustin, A C Chan
Nov 4, 2000·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·D ZhangJ Lieberman

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Feb 1, 2007·Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII·Stephen R MattarolloAndrew J Nicol
Sep 16, 2008·Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII·Calin D DumitruGary W Gullikson
Nov 15, 2011·Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII·Anatoli M MalyguineMichael R Shurin
Sep 29, 2011·Medical Microbiology and Immunology·Tanja BreinigAndreas Meyerhans
Oct 7, 2006·Parasitology Research·Christine LangCarsten G K Lüder
Mar 19, 2009·Medical Molecular Morphology·Satoshi YamagiwaTakafumi Ichida
Aug 5, 2009·Apoptosis : an International Journal on Programmed Cell Death·Elise C Ambrose, Jacki Kornbluth
Jul 31, 2008·Clinical & Experimental Metastasis·Thorsten R Mempel, Christian A Bauer
Sep 19, 2009·Immunologic Research·Xuefang Cao
Jan 22, 2004·Current Opinion in Immunology·Leonidas N Carayannopoulos, Wayne M Yokoyama
Oct 19, 2004·FEMS Yeast Research·Wilfried Bursch
Sep 23, 2003·Current Opinion in Immunology·William J GrossmanTimothy J Ley
Feb 21, 2008·Reproductive Biomedicine Online·Wayne M Yokoyama, Joan K Riley
Nov 2, 2004·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Laurie H GlimcherGraham M Lord
Apr 19, 2008·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Greg Lemke, Carla V Rothlin
Jun 21, 2008·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Dario A A VignaliCreg J Workman
Oct 7, 2008·Oncogene·I Waldhauer, A Steinle
Oct 20, 2007·Cell Death and Differentiation·C W Chan, F Housseau
Jun 6, 2009·The New England Journal of Medicine·Manuel G CosioAlvar Agusti
Sep 6, 2008·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Florian C KurschusDieter E Jenne
Apr 13, 2005·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·Vincenzo BronteAntonella Viola
Apr 7, 2010·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·David VermijlenFabienne Willems
Nov 23, 2006·Assay and Drug Development Technologies·Joakim Glamann, Anker Jon Hansen
Dec 3, 2004·Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association·Hendrik KollerAlexander R Rosenkranz
Aug 12, 2005·Current Opinion in Rheumatology·Kareem L Graham, Paul J Utz
Feb 3, 2007·Pediatric Critical Care Medicine : a Journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies·Reinout A BemJob B M van Woensel
May 6, 2010·The American Journal of Surgical Pathology·Jey-Hsin ChenAntonio R Perez-Atayde
Jan 13, 2006·Immunology and Cell Biology·Michael BotsJan Paul Medema
Jan 28, 2009·Neuropathology : Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology·Ganta Vijay ChaitanyaPhanithi Prakash Babu

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Related Papers

Current Opinion in Immunology
J Lieberman, Zusen Fan
Current Opinion in Immunology
Srikumar M RajaChristopher J Froelich
Current Opinion in Immunology
Marta Catalfamo, Pierre A Henkart
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved