The AIDS dementia complex: II. Neuropathology

Annals of Neurology
Bradford A NaviaRichard Price

Abstract

In order to define the histopathological substrate of the dementia that frequently complicates the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), we analyzed the neuropathological findings in 70 autopsied adult AIDS patients, 46 of whom had suffered clinically overt dementia. Less than 10% of the brains were histologically normal. Abnormalities were found predominantly in the white matter and in subcortical structures, with relative sparing of the cortex. Their frequency and severity generally correlated well with the degree and duration of clinical dementia. Most commonly noted was diffuse pallor in the white matter, which in the pathologically milder cases was accompanied by scanty perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes and brown-pigmented macrophages, and in the most advanced cases by clusters of foamy macrophages and multinucleated cells associated with multifocal rarefaction of the white matter. However, in nearly one third of the demented cases the histopathological findings were remarkably bland in relation to the severity of clinical dysfunction. In addition, similar mild changes were noted in over one half of the nondemented patients, consistent with subclinical involvement. Vacuolar myelopathy was found in 23 patients a...Continue Reading

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