The airways and anaesthesia II. Pathophysiology

D R Burwell, J G Jones


We pointed out in the first of these two articles that the commonest cause of an anaesthetic disaster in young healthy patients is a loss of airway patency then a failure to intubate occurring unexpectedly in the absence of head or neck pathology. Upper airway obstruction is a very common complication of general anaesthesia and all anaesthetists must be trained in the management of this problem. Less obvious are the changes that can occur in the lower airways which can impair gas exchange by increasing ventilation-perfusion mismatch. This article is concerned with these pathophysiological changes that occur during general anaesthesia.


Aug 1, 1979·Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology·N MullerA C Bryan
Apr 1, 1979·Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology·R T Brouillette, B T Thach
Aug 1, 1979·British Journal of Anaesthesia·C A HirshmanN A Bergman
Jun 1, 1978·Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology·J E RemmersA M Anch
Mar 1, 1977·The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology·C T Sasaki, M Suzuki
Aug 1, 1977·The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology·M M MillerR Patterson
Dec 1, 1992·British Journal of Anaesthesia·R CohendyJ J Eledjam
Jul 1, 1992·British Journal of Anaesthesia·P BarkerG Smith
Feb 1, 1991·British Journal of Anaesthesia·P R NandiC J Doré
Oct 1, 1991·British Journal of Anaesthesia·Y NaitoK Mori
Jan 1, 1991·British Journal of Anaesthesia·K N WilliamsR S Cormack
Mar 1, 1991·British Journal of Anaesthesia·J D OatesG D Murray
Sep 1, 1990·British Journal of Anaesthesia·T A King, A P Adams
Dec 1, 1990·British Journal of Anaesthesia·L J AbernethyG B Drummond
May 1, 1990·Anesthesiology·W C LenoxC A Hirshman
Oct 1, 1985·Anesthesiology·C A HirshmanJ M Hanifin
Apr 1, 1987·Anesthesiology·F C NorthC A Hirshman
Nov 30, 1989·The New England Journal of Medicine·P J Barnes
Jun 1, 1989·Anesthesiology·S J Crogan, M J Bishop
Jun 1, 1989·Anesthesiology·S KrayerE L Ritman
Jul 1, 1989·British Journal of Anaesthesia·G B Drummond
May 9, 1987·Lancet·J G AyresR M Whittington
Jul 1, 1987·The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology·A B KayH B Richerson
Oct 1, 1988·Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica·H Zetterström
Jun 1, 1988·British Journal of Anaesthesia·G B Drummond
Aug 1, 1988·Anaesthesia·K McKeatingJ W Dundee
Aug 1, 1988·British Journal of Anaesthesia·M E WilsonP Lesser
Apr 1, 1987·British Journal of Anaesthesia·J G JonesJ R Lehane
May 1, 1987·Anaesthesia·G L Samsoon, J R Young
Aug 1, 1987·British Journal of Anaesthesia·J G Jones
Nov 1, 1986·Respiration Physiology·D F Donnelly, G G Haddad
Aug 1, 1985·British Journal of Anaesthesia·D A SimpsonJ Hammond
Jan 1, 1986·British Journal of Anaesthesia·C P HeneghanD M Catley
Mar 1, 1985·British Journal of Anaesthesia·M P Boidin
Jul 1, 1985·Canadian Anaesthetists' Society Journal·S R MallampatiP L Liu
May 1, 1974·British Journal of Anaesthesia·P M LundyE H Colhoun
Sep 1, 1974·Anesthesiology·A B Froese, A C Bryan
Apr 1, 1969·British Journal of Diseases of the Chest·M C Kennedy
Jul 1, 1972·Anesthesia and Analgesia·G CorssenF C Huber
Oct 1, 1972·Southern Medical Journal·F C HuberG Corssen
Feb 1, 1982·Anesthesiology·C E RosowJ J Savarese
May 1, 1983·The American Review of Respiratory Disease·A D MackayA E Tattersfield
Apr 1, 1984·Anesthesiology·S KorenagaY Ito
Oct 1, 1984·Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica·G L Olsson, B Hallen
Nov 1, 1984·Anaesthesia·R S Cormack, J R Lehane
Dec 1, 1984·British Journal of Pharmacology·A D Fryer, J Maclagan
Mar 1, 1984·Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology·E van LunterenN S Cherniack
May 1, 1980·The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology·T Ikari, C T Sasaki
Oct 1, 1980·Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology·K P StrohlR H Ingram
Nov 1, 1982·Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology·G B PatrickM D Altose
Jun 1, 1981·Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology·P M Lundy, R Frew
Sep 1, 1981·Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology·C JordanJ P Royston
Jun 1, 1995·British Journal of Anaesthesia·S PilkingtonR S Cormack
Jan 1, 1995·Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica·H U RothenG Hedenstierna
Oct 1, 1993·Anaesthesia and Intensive Care·J A WilliamsonA V Dreosti
Dec 1, 1993·British Journal of Anaesthesia·H U RothenG Hedenstierna
Mar 1, 1993·Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia = Journal Canadien D'anesthésie·R L Knill
Mar 1, 1993·Respiration Physiology·T NishinoG Sant'Ambrogio
Apr 1, 1993·Anaesthesia·D J Bihari, R W Chang
Oct 1, 1995·Respiration Physiology·G Sant'AmbrogioF B Sant'Ambrogio
Sep 1, 1996·Anaesthesia·D R Burwell, J G Jones
Mar 1, 1961·Anesthesiology·S MORIKAWAJ DECARLO
Jan 1, 1959·Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica·E ASMUSSENT ROSENDAL
Mar 1, 1963·Anesthesia and Analgesia·M I GOLD, M HELRICH
Nov 15, 1930·British Medical Journal·I W Magill


Jun 9, 2010·Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management·Hiroshi ItoYosuke Suzuki
Oct 3, 2006·Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology·M Högman, G Hedenstierna

Related Concepts

General Anesthesia
Compression Pulmonary Atelectasis
Lobar Bronchus Structure
Lung Diseases, Obstructive
Pulmonary Gas Exchange
Reflex Action
Respiration Disorders
Respiratory Tract Structure
General anesthetic drugs

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection

Lipidomics can be used to examine the lipid species involved with pathogenic conditions, such as viral associated inflammation. Discovered the latest research on Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection.

Glut1 Deficiency

Glut1 deficiency, an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier, is characterized by mental and motor developmental delays and infantile seizures. Follow the latest research on Glut1 deficiency with this feed.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Laryngeal Neoplasms

Laryngeal Neoplasms occur in the Larynx and are typically associated with smoking and alcohol consumption. Discover the latest research on Laryngeal Neoplasms here.

Cell Atlas Along the Gut-Brain Axis

Profiling cells along the gut-brain axis at the single cell level will provide unique information for each cell type, a three-dimensional map of how cell types work together to form tissues, and insights into how changes in the map underlie health and disease of the GI system and its crosstalk with the brain. Disocver the latest research on single cell analysis of the gut-brain axis here.

Related Papers

Special Care in Dentistry : Official Publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry
T OgasawaraH Kasahara
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery : Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
Winnie PradelUwe Eckelt
Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
H J Milionis, M S Elisaf
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved