The art of transparency

Bilge Sayim, Patrick Cavanagh


Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material ...Continue Reading


Feb 1, 1990·Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance·W GerbinoC M de Weert
Jan 11, 1990·Nature·A Blake, H Bülthoff
Dec 1, 1988·Perception & Psychophysics·J Beck, R Ivry
Jan 1, 1985·Psychological Research·F Metelli
Apr 1, 1974·Scientific American·F Metelli
May 1, 1984·Perception & Psychophysics·J BeckR Ivry
Oct 1, 1981·Perception & Psychophysics·J Beck, S Prazdny
Nov 1, 1993·Vision Research·T Watanabe, Patrick Cavanagh
Jan 1, 1993·Spatial Vision·D J Plummer, V S Ramachandran
Jan 1, 1996·Perception·T Watanabe, Patrick Cavanagh
Jan 1, 1997·Perception·M D'ZmuraB Laget
Jun 7, 2002·Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision·Franz Faul, Vebjørn Ekroll
Jun 22, 2002·Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance·Camilla J CroucherHeiko Hecht
Jun 29, 2002·Psychological Review·Manish Singh, Barton L Anderson
Jul 12, 2003·Perception·Marco BertaminiAlice Spooner
Jul 24, 2003·Journal of Vision·Roland W FlemingEdward H Adelson
Nov 6, 2003·Psychological Review·Barton L Anderson
Feb 8, 2005·Perception·Pascal Mamassian
Mar 18, 2005·Nature·Patrick Cavanagh
Dec 20, 2005·Perception·Yuri OstrovskyPawan Sinha
Aug 10, 2006·Journal of Vision·Jacqueline M FulvioLaurence T Maloney
Feb 8, 2007·Perception·Cesare Masin Sergio
Dec 25, 2007·Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision·Jan KoenderinkWhitman Richards
Jun 7, 2008·Spatial Vision·Patrick CavanaghDina Wang
May 14, 2010·Journal of Vision·Isamu Motoyoshi, Sayuri Hayakawa
Sep 17, 2010·Perception·Jan KoenderinkMaarten Wijntjes
Oct 5, 2010·Journal of Vision·Tobias TeichertFrank Bremmer


Aug 5, 2015·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Takahiro KawabeShin'ya Nishida
Jul 28, 2018·Annual Review of Vision Science·Shin'ya NishidaTaiki Fukiage
Jun 19, 2019·I-Perception·Takahiro Kawabe
Oct 2, 2020·Perception·Bo DongMing Zhang

Related Concepts

Stents, Vascular, Coronary
Cell Junction Organization
Tight Junction Proteins

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Congenital Hyperinsulinism

Congenital hyperinsulinism is caused by genetic mutations resulting in excess insulin secretion from beta cells of the pancreas. Here is the latest research.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Femoral Neoplasms

Femoral Neoplasms are bone tumors that arise in the femur. Discover the latest research on femoral neoplasms here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.