PMID: 10299059Dec 7, 1982

The Barefoot Doctors of China: from political creation to professionalization

Human Organization
M M Rosenthal, J R Greiner


The Barefoot Doctor policy of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) has recently been changed. Rather than remaining a permanent corp of paraprofessionals, Barefoot Doctors (BFD) are to be upgraded, certified, and paid wages for full-time medical work in a process of slow professionalization. This article includes a brief historical description of BFD policy evolution and a literature review that notes problems in the equitable implementation of the original policy. An update in information is added based on original material collected in 1979 and 1981, providing a current picture of efforts to implement the new professional focus. While BFDs everywhere are taking the certification examinations, there are almost no signs of other features of the new policy.


May 1, 1979·The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease·A Kleinman, D Mechanic
May 4, 1979·Science·C C Fordham
May 1, 1979·Ultrasonics·P Greguss
Jun 28, 1979·The New England Journal of Medicine·R J Blendon
Jul 18, 1974·The New England Journal of Medicine·R C Hsu
Jun 15, 1972·The New England Journal of Medicine·V W Sidel
Apr 1, 1974·Scientific American·W Sidel, R Sidel
May 1, 1974·The Western Journal of Medicine·P R Lee
Aug 1, 1972·International Journal of Health Services : Planning, Administration, Evaluation·V W Sidel
Mar 8, 1976·Human Organization·P K New, L M New


Jun 30, 2014·Human Resources for Health·Huiwen XuDonghua Tian
Jan 1, 1984·Medical Anthropology·P K New, Y W Cheung
May 9, 2020·Archives of Iranian Medicine·Leila DoshmangirFarshad Farzadfar

Related Concepts

National Health Policy

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

Computational Methods for Protein Structures

Computational methods employing machine learning algorithms are powerful tools that can be used to predict the effect of mutations on protein structure. This is important in neurodegenerative disorders, where some mutations can cause the formation of toxic protein aggregations. This feed follows the latests insights into the relationships between mutation and protein structure leading to better understanding of disease.

Congenital Hyperinsulinism

Congenital hyperinsulinism is caused by genetic mutations resulting in excess insulin secretion from beta cells of the pancreas. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Femoral Neoplasms

Femoral Neoplasms are bone tumors that arise in the femur. Discover the latest research on femoral neoplasms here.