Oct 1, 1989

The basis for activity controlled rate variable cardiac pacemakers: an analysis of mechanical forces on the human body induced by exercise and environment

Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE
E AltR Baker


We conducted tests on six healthy volunteers and six pacemaker patients. With the aid of three straight line frequency acceleration pickups attached to the body, the mechanical signals were recorded on the three axes during different activities. Along with standardized exercise on bicycle and treadmill ergometers, we tested the influence of household activities and interference influences. The results were analyzed in terms of the amplitude and frequency content of the signals. For walking activities, we found a signal amplitude increasing in a largely linear fashion with the walking speed, the signal amplitudes being approximately twice as high on the vertical axis as on the other two axes. Exercise on the bicycle ergometer produced mechanical signals of clearly lower amplitude than comparable walking activities. The Fast-Fourier analysis showed amplitude peaks in the low frequency range of 1 to 4 Hz for all forms of physiological exercise, while interference influences showed amplitude peaks mainly in the range above 8 Hz. The use of a straight line-frequency acceleration pickup and a corresponding low pass filter might be a way of reducing the effect of unphysiological interference influences on an activity controlled pacema...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Stress, Mechanical
Exercise, Isometric
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test
Fourier Transform
Signal Processing, Digital
Artificial Cardiac Pacemaker
Self Care (Rehabilitation)
Cardiac Pacing, Artificial
Medical Device Design
Heart Diseases

About this Paper

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.