DOI: 10.1101/453852Oct 26, 2018Paper

The BRadykinesia Akinesia INcoordination (BRAIN) tap test: capturing the sequence effect

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Hasan HasanAlastair J Noyce


Background: The BRAIN tap test is an online keyboard tapping task that has been previously validated to assess upper limb motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). Objectives: To develop a new parameter which detects a sequence effect and to reliably distinguish between PD patients on and off medication. Alongside, we sought to validate a mobile version of the test for use on smartphones and tablet devices. Methods: BRAIN test scores in 61 patients with PD and 93 healthy controls were compared. A range of established parameters captured speed and accuracy of alternate taps. The new VS (Velocity Score) recorded the inter-tap speed. Decrement in the VS was used as a marker for the sequence effect. In the validation phase, 19 PD patients and 19 controls were tested using multiple types of hardware platforms including smart devices. Results: Quantified slopes from the VS demonstrated bradykinesia (sequence effect) in PD patients (slope cut-off -0.002) with sensitivity of 58% and specificity of 81% (discovery phase of the study) and sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 88% (validation phase). All BRAIN test parameters differentiated between on medication and off medication states in PD. Most BRAIN tap test parameters had high tes...Continue Reading

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