PMID: 10928573Aug 6, 2000Paper

The Bradykinesia Akinesia Incoordination Test (BRAIN TEST), an objective and user-friendly means to evaluate patients with parkinsonism

Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
C N HomannH P Hartung

Abstract

The BRAIN TEST, a computerized alternating finger tapping test, was performed on 154 patients with parkinsonism to assess whether the test could be used as an objective tool to evaluate reliably the severity of Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients were instructed to tap two marked computer keyboard keys as fast and as accurately as possible for 60 seconds. The test generates the following variables: (1) kinesia score (KS)--number of keystrokes/min, (2) akinesia time (AT)--cumulative time that keys are depressed, (3) dysmetria score (DS)--a weighted score generated from incorrectly hit keys and corrected for speed, and (4) arrhythmia score (AS)--variance of the time interval between individual keystrokes. Among parkinsonian patients, we found a significant correlation between the four test parameters and PD rating scores of the Hoehn & Yahr, Schwab & England, and Unified PD Rating Scales (KS, AS, and AT p <0.001 and DS p <0.05). When compared with 73 parkinsonian patients 73 age- and sex-matched control subjects showed significantly higher KS and lower AT (p <0.001) as well as lower DS and AS (p = 0.05). The BRAIN TEST is a reliable and practical tool for evaluating the severity of parkinsonism and for distinguishing subjects with...Continue Reading

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Citations

Nov 6, 2010·Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing·Ji-Won KimKun-Woo Park
Nov 30, 2006·Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders·James E Galvin
Jan 13, 2010·Archives of Neurology·Matthew A BrodskyJohn G Nutt
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May 25, 2005·Neuroscience Letters·Noa FogelsonPeter Brown
Oct 2, 2012·Experimental Neurology·David T BrockerWarren M Grill
Apr 7, 2007·The Review of Scientific Instruments·Akihiko KandoriSaburo Sakoda
Feb 27, 2017·IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering·Teresa Arroyo-GallegoLuca Giancardo
Oct 27, 2018·Movement Disorders Clinical Practice·Paulina J M BankJacobus J van Hilten
Jan 19, 2012·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·Alastair J NoyceGavin Giovannoni
Jan 6, 2017·Science Translational Medicine·David T BrockerWarren M Grill
May 23, 2017·Parkinsonism & Related Disorders·Natalie E AllenColleen G Canning
May 23, 2021·Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation·Kenneth H LouieTheoden I Netoff
Dec 14, 2004·Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society·Julie A RobichaudDaniel M Corcos

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