The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the best-studied enzyme-neuropeptide systems in the brain and can serve as a model for the action of peptides on neuronal function in general. It is now well established that the brain has its own intrinsic RAS with all its components present in the central nervous system. The RAS generates a family of bioactive angiotensin peptides with variable biological and neurobiological activities. These include angiotensin-(1-8) [Ang II], angiotensin-(3-8) [Ang IV], and angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]. These neuroactive forms of angiotensin act through specific receptors. Only Ang II acts through two different high-specific receptors, termed AT1 and AT2. Neuronal AT1 receptors mediate the stimulatory actions of Ang II on blood pressure, water and salt intake, and the secretion of vasopressin. In contrast, neuronal AT2 receptors have been implicated in the stimulation of apoptosis and as being antagonistic to AT1 receptors. Among the many potential effects mediated by stimulation of AT2 are neuronal regeneration after injury and the inhibition of pathological growth. Ang-(1-7) mediates its antihypertensive effects by stimulating the synthesis and release of vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric ...Continue Reading
Angiotensin II receptor binding associated with nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in human basal ganglia
The angiotensin hexapeptide 3-8 fragment potently inhibits [125I]angiotensin II binding to non-AT1 or -AT2 recognition sites in bovine adrenal cortex
Differential distribution of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin II receptor subtypes in the rat brain during development.
Non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor: effect on a renin-induced deficit of a passive avoidance response in rats
Angiotensin II increases the corticotropin-releasing factor messenger ribonucleic acid level in the rat hypothalamus
A comparison of the effects of an extract of feverfew and parthenolide, a component of feverfew, on human platelet activity in-vitro.
Cloning and expression of a complementary DNA encoding a bovine adrenal angiotensin II type-1 receptor
Autoradiographic localization of mas proto-oncogene mRNA in adult rat brain using in situ hybridization
The angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors, captopril and Wy-44,655 attenuate the consequences of cerebral ischemia in renovascular hypertensive rats
Central effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril. I. Performance and subjective assessments of mood
Angiotensin II-(3-8)-hexapeptide affects motor activity, performance of passive avoidance and a conditioned avoidance response in rats
The biotin-streptavidin system in a two-site ELISA for the detection of plasmodial sporozoite antigen in mosquitoes
Inability of [125I]Sar1, Ile8-angiotensin II to move between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid compartments.
Isolation and characterization of a new cellular oncogene encoding a protein with multiple potential transmembrane domains
Cardiovascular and drinking responses elicited by central administration of angiotensin II: differential effects of GABA injected into the ventral tegmental area and spiperone injected into the nucleus accumbens
Sar,Ala]angiotensin II in cerebrospinal fluid blocks the binding of blood-borne [125I]angiotensin II to the circumventricular organs
Impaired spatial memory and altered dendritic spine morphology in angiotensin II type 2 receptor-deficient mice.
Angiotensin-(1-7) via the mas receptor alleviates the diabetes-induced decrease in GFAP and GAP-43 immunoreactivity with concomitant reduction in the COX-2 in hippocampal formation: an immunohistochemical study.
Nicotine modulates the renin-angiotensin system of cultured neurons and glial cells from cardiovascular brain areas of Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Angiotensin-(1-7) central administration induces anxiolytic-like effects in elevated plus maze and decreased oxidative stress in the amygdala
Microscopic visualization of metabotropic glutamate receptors on the surface of living cells using bifunctional magnetic resonance imaging probes
Lewis acid catalyzed S(N)2-type ring opening of N-activated aziridines with electron-rich arenes/heteroarenes
Different actions of losartan and ramipril on adipose tissue activity and vascular remodeling biomarkers in hypertensive patients
Side chain-oxidized oxysterols regulate the brain renin-angiotensin system through a liver X receptor-dependent mechanism.
Differential effects of antihypertensive treatments on apoptosis, oxidative stress, and expression of angiotensin receptors in the cerebral cortex from the onset of prehypertension and hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneous hypertensive rats
Brain angiotensin AT1 receptors as specific regulators of cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychoemotional stress
Facilitation of hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial memory by C-terminal truncated Nle1-angiotensin IV analogs.
Angiotensin II type 2 receptor-coupled nitric oxide production modulates free radical availability and voltage-gated Ca2+ currents in NTS neurons.
Chronic immunoneutralization of brain angiotensin-(1-12) lowers blood pressure in transgenic (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats.
Different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase are involved in angiotensin-(1-7)-mediated plasticity changes in the amygdala in a gender-dependent manner
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated reduction of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity in the brain impairs baroreflex function in hypertensive mice.
High fat diet exacerbates neuroinflammation in an animal model of multiple sclerosis by activation of the Renin Angiotensin system
Plasma renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in early stage Alzheimer's disease and show gender differences but are not related to apolipoprotein E genotype
Angiotensin II and III suppress food intake via angiotensin AT(2) receptor and prostaglandin EP(4) receptor in mice
Vasopressin and sympathetic system mediate the cardiovascular effects of the angiotensin II in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in rat
Angiotensin AT2 receptor stimulation inhibits activation of NADPH oxidase and ameliorates oxidative stress in rotenone model of Parkinson's disease in CATH.a cells
Exercise Training Improves the Altered Renin-Angiotensin System in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla of Hypertensive Rats
The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril treatment alters cardiovascular and subjective effects of methamphetamine in humans.
The hyperalgesic effects induced by the injection of angiotensin II into the caudal ventrolateral medulla are mediated by the pontine A5 noradrenergic cell group
Orally administered novokinin, an angiotensin AT2 receptor agonist, suppresses food intake via prostaglandin E2-dependent mechanism in mice
Association between regional cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia and genetic and phenotypic traits of the renin-angiotensin system
Candesartan improves memory decline in mice: involvement of AT1 receptors in memory deficit induced by intracerebral streptozotocin
Subfornical organ mediates pressor effect of angiotensin: Influence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, AT(1) and AT(2) angiotensin antagonist's receptors
Convergent evidences from human and animal studies implicate angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity in cognitive performance in schizophrenia
Effects of intracerebroventricular infusion of angiotensin-(1-7) on bradykinin formation and the kinin receptor expression after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats
Effect of upregulated renin-angiotensin system on per2 and bmal1 gene expression in brain structures involved in blood pressure control in TGR(mREN-2)27 rats
Angiotensin II suppresses long-term depression in the lateral amygdala of mice via L-type calcium channels
Antihypertensive Agents: Mechanisms of Action
Antihypertensive drugs are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) which aims to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Discover the latest research on antihypertensive drugs and their mechanism of action here.