The CNS renin-angiotensin system

Cell and Tissue Research
O von Bohlen und Halbach, D Albrecht

Abstract

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the best-studied enzyme-neuropeptide systems in the brain and can serve as a model for the action of peptides on neuronal function in general. It is now well established that the brain has its own intrinsic RAS with all its components present in the central nervous system. The RAS generates a family of bioactive angiotensin peptides with variable biological and neurobiological activities. These include angiotensin-(1-8) [Ang II], angiotensin-(3-8) [Ang IV], and angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]. These neuroactive forms of angiotensin act through specific receptors. Only Ang II acts through two different high-specific receptors, termed AT1 and AT2. Neuronal AT1 receptors mediate the stimulatory actions of Ang II on blood pressure, water and salt intake, and the secretion of vasopressin. In contrast, neuronal AT2 receptors have been implicated in the stimulation of apoptosis and as being antagonistic to AT1 receptors. Among the many potential effects mediated by stimulation of AT2 are neuronal regeneration after injury and the inhibition of pathological growth. Ang-(1-7) mediates its antihypertensive effects by stimulating the synthesis and release of vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric ...Continue Reading

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