The coronavirus spike protein is a class I virus fusion protein: structural and functional characterization of the fusion core complex

Journal of Virology
Berend Jan BoschPeter J M Rottier

Abstract

Coronavirus entry is mediated by the viral spike (S) glycoprotein. The 180-kDa oligomeric S protein of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 is posttranslationally cleaved into an S1 receptor binding unit and an S2 membrane fusion unit. The latter is thought to contain an internal fusion peptide and has two 4,3 hydrophobic (heptad) repeat regions designated HR1 and HR2. HR2 is located close to the membrane anchor, and HR1 is some 170 amino acids (aa) upstream of it. Heptad repeat (HR) regions are found in fusion proteins of many different viruses and form an important characteristic of class I viral fusion proteins. We investigated the role of these regions in coronavirus membrane fusion. Peptides HR1 (96 aa) and HR2 (39 aa), corresponding to the HR1 and HR2 regions, were produced in Escherichia coli. When mixed together, the two peptides were found to assemble into an extremely stable oligomeric complex. Both on their own and within the complex, the peptides were highly alpha helical. Electron microscopic analysis of the complex revealed a rod-like structure approximately 14.5 nm in length. Limited proteolysis in combination with mass spectrometry indicated that HR1 and HR2 occur in the complex in an antipara...Continue Reading

References

Jan 1, 1979·Archives of Virology·H A Davies, M R Macnaughton
Nov 1, 1992·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·C WildT Matthews
Jul 1, 1991·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·R K WilliamsK V Holmes
Jan 1, 1990·Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology·H VennemaW J Spaan
Nov 1, 1989·Analytical Biochemistry·S C Gill, P H von Hippel
Nov 1, 1988·The Journal of General Virology·R W RuigrokD C Wiley
Aug 20, 1987·Journal of Molecular Biology·R J de GrootJ A Lenstra
Oct 11, 1994·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·C T WildT J Matthews
May 1, 1996·Nature Structural Biology·D FassP S Kim
Dec 19, 1995·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J ChenD C Wiley
Mar 5, 1996·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·D M LambertS R Petteway
Dec 1, 1995·Nature Structural Biology·M LuP S Kim
May 22, 1997·Nature·W WeissenhornD C Wiley
Nov 14, 1997·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·K TanM Lu
Feb 12, 1998·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J K JudiceR S McDowell
Apr 18, 1998·Nature Structural Biology·R A FurutaC D Weiss
May 30, 1998·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·W WeissenhornD C Wiley
Aug 5, 1998·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·V N MalashkevichP S Kim
Aug 26, 1998·The EMBO Journal·M CaffreyG M Clore

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Citations

Jan 12, 2005·Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences = Hua Zhong Ke Ji Da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ying De Wen Ban = Huazhong Keji Daxue Xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen Ban·Wuxing DaiRenli Zhang
Aug 31, 2011·Virus Genes·Kazuya ShiratoTetsuya Mizutani
Mar 17, 2007·Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery·Charlotte Dye, Stuart G Siddell
Mar 11, 2005·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Michèle A BarocchiRino Rappuoli
Mar 24, 2004·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Konrad StadlerRino Rappuoli
Mar 27, 2004·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Dimiter S Dimitrov
Jan 7, 2009·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Montserrat BárcenaBerend Jan Bosch
Jun 15, 2011·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Guiqing PengFang Li
Oct 6, 2009·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Ana Shulla, Tom Gallagher
Jan 22, 2004·Viral Immunology·Sonia Navas-Martin, Susan R Weiss
Jun 15, 2007·Antioxidants & Redox Signaling·Emmanuel FenouilletIan M Jones
Apr 9, 2010·Viral Immunology·Dan YuShengwang Liu
May 26, 2006·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·Krzysztof PyrcLia van der Hoek
Feb 25, 2011·Journal of Virology·Marne C HagemeijerCornelis A M de Haan
May 27, 2011·Journal of Virology·Kazuya ShiratoFumihiro Taguchi
Jul 13, 2007·Journal of Virology·Patricia EifartAndreas Herrmann
Dec 17, 2009·Journal of Virology·Marne C HagemeijerCornelis A M de Haan

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Blastomycosis

Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Microbicide

Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.