The craniofacial complex in 45,X/46,XX females

Archives of Oral Biology
M GrönL Alvesalo


Fourteen Finnish 45,X/46,XX females were compared with population female and male controls, and in addition, nine of them were compared with their first-degree female relatives. Linear and angular measurements were made from standardized lateral cephalograms of patients and normal population controls from the "Kvantti" study series. In both comparisons the results indicated that craniofacial dimensions in 45,X/46,XX females were smaller than those in population female and male controls. The general metric pattern was similar to that observed in relation to the tooth crowns of 45,X/46,XX females. Several of their craniofacial proportions and plane angles differed from those of normal women: shorter anterior and posterior cranial bases and a flatter cranial-base angle, a sagittally shorter maxilla and a sagittally shorter mandible with an enlarged ramus:corpus length ratio, posterior rotation of the mandible and a tendency to bimaxillary retrusion. It is suggested that the reduction of X-chromosomal genetic material in 45,X/46,XX females results in smaller craniofacial dimensions than in normal females, with substantial effects on dimensional ratios and especially plane angles of the cranial base.


Sep 1, 1976·Acta Radiologica: Diagnosis·K Rzymski, J Kosowicz
Jul 1, 1975·Clinical Radiology·K Rzymski, J Kosowicz
Jan 1, 1991·Archives of Oral Biology·J T MayhallG C Townsend
Aug 1, 1991·European Journal of Orthodontics·M BabićS Mićić
Jan 3, 1991·Nature·K Davies
Oct 1, 1989·Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research·M HarjuL Alvesalo
Dec 1, 1987·Human Genetics·L AlvesaloE Therman
Jun 1, 1993·European Journal of Orthodontics·T BrownG C Townsend
Jan 7, 1998·Human Genetics·L Alvesalo
May 7, 1998·Archives of Oral Biology·P PirttiniemiP Karjalahti


Sep 25, 2012·Clinical Oral Investigations·Jovana JuloskiMarko Babić
Nov 28, 2009·Archives of Oral Biology·J DumancicH Brkic
Jul 4, 2016·Archives of Oral Biology·Jovana JuloskiMarko Babić
Feb 13, 2020·Diagnostics·Dorota Wójcik, Iwona Beń-Skowronek

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Glut1 Deficiency

Glut1 deficiency, an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier, is characterized by mental and motor developmental delays and infantile seizures. Follow the latest research on Glut1 deficiency with this feed.

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is a type of anxiety disorder that involves excessive distress and anxiety with separation. This may include separation from places or people to which they have a strong emotional connection with. It often affects children more than adults. Here is the latest research on separation anxiety.

KIF1A Associated Neurological Disorder

KIF1A associated neurological disorder (KAND) is a rare neurodegenerative condition caused by mutations in the KIF1A gene. KAND may present with a wide range and severity of symptoms including stiff or weak leg muscles, low muscle tone, a lack of muscle coordination and balance, and intellectual disability. Find the latest research on KAND here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.