Jan 17, 2020

The CRISPR toolbox in medical mycology: State of the art and perspectives

PLoS Pathogens
Florent MorioGeraldine Butler

Abstract

Fungal pathogens represent a major human threat affecting more than a billion people worldwide. Invasive infections are on the rise, which is of considerable concern because they are accompanied by an escalation of antifungal resistance. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying virulence traits and drug resistance strongly relies on genetic manipulation techniques such as generating mutant strains carrying specific mutations, or gene deletions. However, these processes have often been time-consuming and cumbersome in fungi due to a number of complications, depending on the species (e.g., diploid genomes, lack of a sexual cycle, low efficiency of transformation and/or homologous recombination, lack of cloning vectors, nonconventional codon usage, and paucity of dominant selectable markers). These issues are increasingly being addressed by applying clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 mediated genetic manipulation to medically relevant fungi. Here, we summarize the state of the art of CRISPR-Cas9 applications in four major human fungal pathogen lineages: Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Mucorales. We highlight the different ways in which CRISPR has been customized t...Continue Reading

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Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Codon (Nucleotide Sequence)
Complication
Genome
Biological Markers
Homologous Recombination
Candida (fungus)
Fungi
Drug Resistance
Transformation, Genetic
Genes

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