The mammalian immune system is equipped with unconventional T cells that respond to microbial molecules such as glycolipids and small-molecule metabolites, which are invisible to conventional CD4 and CD8 T cells. Unconventional T cells include invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, which are involved in a wide range of infectious and non-infectious diseases, such as cancer and autoimmunity. In addition, their high conservation across mammals, their restriction by non-polymorphic antigen-presenting molecules, and their immediate and robust responses make these 'innate' T cells appealing targets for the development of one-size-fits-all immunotherapies. In this review, we discuss how iNKT and MAIT cells directly and indirectly detect the presence of and respond to pathogenic and commensal microbes. We also explore the current understanding of the bidirectional relationship between the microbiota and innate T cells, and how this crosstalk shapes the immune response in disease.
Oxazolone colitis, a Th2 colitis model resembling ulcerative colitis, is mediated by IL-13-producing NK-T cells
NKT cells inhibit the onset of diabetes by impairing the development of pathogenic T cells specific for pancreatic beta cells
Essential role of NKT cells producing IL-4 and IL-13 in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity
Cutting edge: invariant V alpha 14 NKT cells are required for allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in an experimental asthma model
A subset of liver NK T cells is activated during Leishmania donovani infection by CD1d-bound lipophosphoglycan
Single dose of OCH improves mucosal T helper type 1/T helper type 2 cytokine balance and prevents experimental colitis in the presence of valpha14 natural killer T cells in mice
The role of CD1d-restricted NK T lymphocytes in the immune response to oral infection with Salmonella typhimurium
Flaxseed alone or in combination with tamoxifen inhibits MCF-7 breast tumor growth in ovariectomized athymic mice with high circulating levels of estrogen
Activation of invariant NKT cells by toll-like receptor 9-stimulated dendritic cells requires type I interferon and charged glycosphingolipids
Modulation of human natural killer T cell ligands on TLR-mediated antigen-presenting cell activation.
Ozone exposure in a mouse model induces airway hyperreactivity that requires the presence of natural killer T cells and IL-17.
Cutting edge: NKT cells constitutively express IL-23 receptor and RORgammat and rapidly produce IL-17 upon receptor ligation in an IL-6-independent fashion.
The BTB-zinc finger transcriptional regulator PLZF controls the development of invariant natural killer T cell effector functions.
Specific microbiota direct the differentiation of IL-17-producing T-helper cells in the mucosa of the small intestine
A novel subset of mouse NKT cells bearing the IL-17 receptor B responds to IL-25 and contributes to airway hyperreactivity.
The pro-Th2 cytokine IL-33 directly interacts with invariant NKT and NK cells to induce IFN-gamma production
Diversity of human colonic butyrate-producing bacteria revealed by analysis of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene
Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn's disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine.
The short chain fatty acid sodium butyrate regulates the induction of CD1a in developing dendritic cells
Gut Microbiota Comparison Between Intestinal Contents and Mucosa in Mice With Repeated Stress-Related Diarrhea Provides Novel Insight.
Does exercise attenuate age- and disease-associated dysfunction in unconventional T cells? Shining a light on overlooked cells in exercise immunology.
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