The dialogue between unconventional T cells and the microbiota.

Mucosal Immunology
Qiaochu LinThierry Mallevaey

Abstract

The mammalian immune system is equipped with unconventional T cells that respond to microbial molecules such as glycolipids and small-molecule metabolites, which are invisible to conventional CD4 and CD8 T cells. Unconventional T cells include invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, which are involved in a wide range of infectious and non-infectious diseases, such as cancer and autoimmunity. In addition, their high conservation across mammals, their restriction by non-polymorphic antigen-presenting molecules, and their immediate and robust responses make these 'innate' T cells appealing targets for the development of one-size-fits-all immunotherapies. In this review, we discuss how iNKT and MAIT cells directly and indirectly detect the presence of and respond to pathogenic and commensal microbes. We also explore the current understanding of the bidirectional relationship between the microbiota and innate T cells, and how this crosstalk shapes the immune response in disease.

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Citations

Nov 12, 2020·Microorganisms·Lakshya Sharma, Antonio Riva
Jun 3, 2021·Microorganisms·Rosella MechelliGiovanni Ristori

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