Our knowledge of the multifunctional nature of airway smooth muscle (ASM) has expanded rapidly in the last decade, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and how current therapies for obstructive airway diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), affect these are still being elucidated. Our current knowledge has built on the pharmacology of human ASM contraction and relaxation established prior to that and which is reviewed in detail elsewhere in this issue. The advent of methods to isolate and culture ASM cells, especially human ASM cells, has made it possible to study how they may contribute to airway remodelling through their synthetic, proliferative, and migratory capacities. Now the underlying molecular mechanisms of ASM growth factor secretion, extracellular matrix (ECM) production, proliferation and migration, as well as contraction and relaxation, are being determined. A complex network of signalling pathways leading to gene transcription in ASM cells permits this functional plasticity in healthy and diseased airways. This review is an overview of the effects of current therapies, and some of those in development, on key signalling pathways and transcription factors involved in these ASM ...Continue Reading
Effects of sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium on histamine secretion from human lung mast cells
Evidence for a direct relationship between phosphoinositide metabolism and airway smooth muscle contraction induced by muscarinic agonists
Muscarinic cholinergic inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in airway smooth muscle. Role of a pertussis toxin-sensitive protein
Effects of sodium cromoglycate analogues on the immunological release of slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis and histamine from human and guinea-pig lung in vitro
Salbutamol inhibits the proliferation of human airway smooth muscle cells grown in culture: relationship to elevated cAMP levels
Arachidonic acid metabolites and glucocorticoid regulatory mechanism in cultured porcine tracheal smooth muscle cells
Comparison of addition of salmeterol to inhaled steroids with doubling of the dose of inhaled steroids
Regulation of histamine H1 receptor coupling by dexamethasone in human cultured airway smooth muscle
Glucocorticoids stimulate p21 gene expression by targeting multiple transcriptional elements within a steroid responsive region of the p21waf1/cip1 promoter in rat hepatoma cells.
Dexamethasone is a novel potent inducer of connective tissue growth factor expression. Implications for glucocorticoid therapy.
Glucocorticoids inhibit proliferation, cyclin D1 expression, and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, but not activity of the extracellular-regulated kinases in human cultured airway smooth muscle
Involvement of cysteinyl leukotrienes in airway smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis after repeated allergen exposure in sensitized Brown Norway rats
Activation of K-p21ras and N-p21ras, but not H-p21ras, is necessary for mitogen-induced human airway smooth-muscle proliferation
Meta-analysis of increased dose of inhaled steroid or addition of salmeterol in symptomatic asthma (MIASMA)
Mechanisms of proliferation synergy by receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor activation in human airway smooth muscle
Ipratropium bromide hydrofluoroalkane inhalation aerosol is safe and effective in patients with COPD
Human airway smooth muscle cells secrete vascular endothelial growth factor: up-regulation by bradykinin via a protein kinase C and prostanoid-dependent mechanism
Enhanced expression of fibroblast growth factors and receptor FGFR-1 during vascular remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Interaction between glucocorticoids and beta2 agonists on bronchial airway smooth muscle cells through synchronised cellular signalling
Regulation of proteoglycan synthesis by leukotriene d4 and epidermal growth factor in bronchial smooth muscle cells
Role of c-jun N-terminal kinase in the induced release of GM-CSF, RANTES and IL-8 from human airway smooth muscle cells
Extracellular matrix proteins modulate asthmatic airway smooth muscle cell proliferation via an autocrine mechanism
Is there a place for anti-remodelling drugs in asthma which may not display immediate clinical efficacy?
Potential role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase in allergic airway inflammation and remodelling: effects of SP600125
Anti-tissue remodeling effects of corticosteroids: fluticasone propionate inhibits fibronectin expression in fibroblasts
CD38/cyclic ADP-ribose signaling: role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in airway smooth muscle
Differential Rho-kinase dependency of full and partial muscarinic receptor agonists in airway smooth muscle contraction
The inhibitory effect of disodium cromoglycate on the growth of Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in vitro
Importance of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in allergic airway remodelling and bronchial hyperresponsiveness
Therapeutic potential of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors in inflammatory respiratory disease
Effect of cromolyn on S100P interactions with RAGE and pancreatic cancer growth and invasion in mouse models
Disease-specific expression and regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Impaired TNFalpha-induced VEGF expression in human airway smooth muscle cells from smokers with COPD: role of MAPkinases and histone acetylation--effect of dexamethasone
Expression of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is a marker for human airway smooth muscle phenotype maturation
Acetylcholine mediates the release of IL-8 in human bronchial epithelial cells by a NFkB/ERK-dependent mechanism
Dual ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways control airway smooth muscle proliferation: differences in asthma
Anti-inflammatory role of the cAMP effectors Epac and PKA: implications in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Protein kinase A and the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) modulate phenotype plasticity in human airway smooth muscle
Functional contribution of sphingosine-1-phosphate to airway pathology in cigarette smoke-exposed mice
Large-scale profiling of signalling pathways reveals an asthma specific signature in bronchial smooth muscle cells
This feed focuses on the AKT serine/threonine kinase, which is an important signaling pathway involved in processes such as glucose metabolism and cell survival.
A drug or substance that reduces inflammation (redness, swelling, and pain) in the body. Anti-inflammatory agents block certain substances in the body that cause inflammation and swelling. Discover the latest research on anti-inflammatory treatments here
Basement membranes are thin, specialized extracellular matrices surrounding most tissues in all metazoans. Here is the latest research on basement membranes.
This feed focuses in Asthma in which your airways narrow and swell. This can make breathing difficult and trigger coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath.
Adrenergic Receptors: Trafficking
Adrenergic receptor trafficking is an active physiological process where adrenergic receptors are relocated from one region of the cell to another or from one type of cell to another. Discover the latest research on adrenergic receptor trafficking here.
Cell migration is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as embryonic development, cancer metastasis, blood vessel formation and remoulding, tissue regeneration, immune surveillance and inflammation. Here is the latest research.
Allergy and Asthma
Allergy and asthma are inflammatory disorders that are triggered by the activation of an allergen-specific regulatory t cell. These t cells become activated when allergens are recognized by allergen-presenting cells. Here is the latest research on allergy and asthma.
Arterial-Venous in Development & Disease
Arterial-venous development may play a crucial role in cardiovascular diseases. Here is the latest research.