The effect of diet on the mammalian gut flora and its metabolic activities

Critical Reviews in Toxicology
I R RowlandA Wise

Abstract

The review will encompass the following points: A brief introduction to the role of the gut flora in the toxicology of ingested food components, contaminants, and additives, including known pathways of activation and detoxication of foreign compounds and the implication of the flora in enterohepatic circulation of xenobiotics. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of studying the gut flora (classical bacteriological techniques, metabolic and enzymological methods) will be critically discussed with special reference to their relevance to dietary, toxicological, and biochemical studies. Sources of nutrients available to the gut flora will be described including host products (mucus, sloughed mucosal cells, hormones, proteins) and exogenous nutrients derived from diet. An account of the problems involved in studies of dietary modification with special reference to the use of stock laboratory animal diets, purified diets, and human dietary studies. The influence of dietary modification on the flora will be assessed on the basis of changes in numbers and types of bacteria and their metabolic activity, drawing on data from human and animal studies. The effects of manipulation of the quantity and quality of protein, ...Continue Reading

References

Aug 1, 1976·Journal of Medical Microbiology·C L BullenA T Willis
Aug 1, 1976·Journal of Medical Microbiology·C L Bullen, P V Tearle
Sep 1, 1976·Clinical Science and Molecular Medicine·A J VinceO M Wrong
Jan 1, 1976·Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry·L Rexová-Benková, O Markovic
Dec 1, 1976·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·S HashimotoM Mutai
Nov 1, 1977·Journal of Medical Microbiology·C L BullenM G Stewart
Sep 1, 1978·Steroids·I A MacdonaldC E Meier
Nov 23, 1979·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·H KosakaI Tyuma
Jun 1, 1978·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·R W ChadwickC J Chadwick
Mar 1, 1975·Journal of General Microbiology·S M Hasan, J B Hall
Dec 15, 1975·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·R P Mason, J L Holtzman
Apr 11, 1977·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·R P MasonJ L Holtzman
Dec 15, 1979·Biochemical Pharmacology·R L KochP Goldman
Feb 1, 1975·The American Journal of Physiology·R A Argenzio, M Southworth
Nov 1, 1977·Cancer·S A BroitmanL S Gottlieb
Oct 1, 1977·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·M R SadzikowskiT D Wilkins
Jan 1, 1978·Biochemical Society Transactions·R W OwenA N Mason
Jun 1, 1978·Gut·A M Dawson
Jan 1, 1979·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·M T Yokoyama, J R Carlson
Feb 1, 1979·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·W R Beisel
Mar 1, 1979·The Journal of Nutrition·W J BettgerB L O'Dell
Jun 1, 1979·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·T CorringR Ducluzeau
Jun 1, 1979·British Journal of Cancer·W M Castleden, K B Shilkin
Jul 1, 1979·The Journal of Nutrition·M C McKenna, A T Campagnoni
Jun 8, 1979·Science·P M Newberne
Mar 1, 1979·Infection and Immunity·C P HartmanK T Chung
May 1, 1979·Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology·T D LandryA H Gates
Nov 1, 1979·The British Journal of Nutrition·R C BrownM S Losowsky
Oct 1, 1979·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·C L WaltersR Walker
Nov 1, 1979·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·J P WitterS J Gatley
Feb 1, 1979·The Journal of Nutrition·D A Hardie-Muncy, A I Rasmussen
Nov 1, 1977·Chemico-biological Interactions·W K Lutz, C Schlatter
Jan 1, 1978·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·I R RowlandP Grasso
Jan 1, 1978·Biochemical Society Transactions·F Fernandez, M Hill
May 1, 1978·Mutation Research·K Suzuki, T Mitsuoka
Apr 1, 1978·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·D KleinG Debry
Oct 1, 1978·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·W J Visek
Aug 1, 1978·Journal of Steroid Biochemistry·P LombardiS L Gorbach
Nov 16, 1978·Nature·T WangW R Bruce
Nov 1, 1978·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·D M Gardner, A G Renwick
Jan 1, 1978·Drug and Chemical Toxicology·S C GadK A Turney
Jan 1, 1979·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·T L Miller, M J Wolin
Feb 1, 1976·Journal of Medical Microbiology·P A SykesP F Schofield
Sep 1, 1976·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·D G Lindmark, M Müller
Dec 1, 1976·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·A MastromarinoE L Wynder
Jan 1, 1976·World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics·J Adrian
Jul 1, 1975·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·E Rinde, W Troll
Jan 1, 1975·World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics·B S Wostmann
Jan 1, 1977·Archives of Environmental Health·I R RowlandP Grasso
May 1, 1977·Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology·I NakamuraT Miura
Apr 1, 1977·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·L M BallR T WILLIAMS
May 1, 1977·Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology·D Kello, K Kostial
Aug 1, 1977·The Journal of Nutrition·J G Bieri
Nov 1, 1977·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·S J Silverman, A W Andrews
Nov 1, 1977·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·S M FinegoldR L Phillips
Nov 1, 1977·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·T Mitsuoka, C Kaneuchi
Oct 1, 1977·Toxicology·P L Mason, G R Thompson
Sep 16, 1976·Nature·A G Renwick, B S Drasar
Aug 1, 1976·British Journal of Cancer·J S CrowtherC H Teoh-chan
Aug 1, 1976·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·I F GauntK R Butterworth
Dec 1, 1976·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·J H CummingsH S Wiggins
Nov 1, 1976·Journal of Medical Microbiology·B S DrasarJ H Cummings
Aug 1, 1976·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·B R Goldin, S L Gorbach
Dec 1, 1976·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·S R TannenbaumD Fett
Sep 15, 1975·Experientia·I R RowlandM J Davies
Feb 6, 1975·Nature·T Edwards, B C McBride
Mar 1, 1975·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·J Leichter, A F Tolensky
Jan 1, 1975·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·A A Tesoriero, J J Roxon
Jan 1, 1976·The British Journal of Nutrition·J A GibsonA M Dawson
Jan 1, 1976·American Journal of Surgery·A L WatneS Core
May 1, 1976·Biochemical Pharmacology·B S ReddyG Krishna
Jan 1, 1985·The Journal of Applied Bacteriology·S P BorrielloA M Lawson
Apr 1, 1985·Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association·R L Anderson
Jan 16, 1971·Lancet·M J HillR E Williams
Nov 1, 1974·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·P GoldmanB R Goldin
Jan 1, 1969·Advances in Lipid Research·F Bischoff
Dec 1, 1974·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·W E Moore, L V Holdeman
Nov 1, 1974·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·M P Bryant
Jul 1, 1966·Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry·T L PerryS Hansen
Oct 1, 1970·Journal of Reproduction and Fertility·J M O'Donnell, J C Ellory
Jul 1, 1974·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·M H BickelM van den Broek-Boot
Jan 6, 1968·Nature·A Angel, K J Rogers
Jan 1, 1971·Biochemical Pharmacology·D R FellerJ R Gillette
Jan 1, 1971·Biochemical Pharmacology·M MoritaJ R Gillette
Oct 5, 1972·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·P Goddard, M J Hill
Oct 1, 1974·Journal of Steroid Biochemistry·P Goddard, M J Hill
Dec 1, 1974·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·S M FinegoldV L Sutter
Dec 1, 1974·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·M J Hill
Sep 1, 1974·British Journal of Cancer·T S MysliwyP M Newberne
Oct 1, 1974·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·D C LeegwaterM van Kalmthout-Kuyper
Dec 1, 1972·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·L V Holdeman, W E Moore
Dec 1, 1972·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·H R AtteberyS M Finegold
May 1, 1974·Journal of Medical Microbiology·J R PearsonB S Drasar
May 1, 1974·Journal of Medical Microbiology·A J VinceA M Dawson
Feb 1, 1974·Mutation Research·D R McCalla, D Voutsinos
Dec 1, 1974·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·B H Ershoff
Nov 1, 1974·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·H J Eyssen, G G Parmentier
Oct 1, 1972·Archives of Internal Medicine·R H Palmer
Oct 1, 1972·The Biochemical Journal·A G Renwick, R T WILLIAMS
Oct 1, 1972·The Biochemical Journal·B S DrasarR T WILLIAMS
Mar 1, 1973·The Journal of Nutrition·J Leichter
Apr 15, 1973·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·M O Pulkkinen, K Willman
Jun 1, 1973·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·B S Reddy, E L Wynder
Jul 16, 1973·European Journal of Biochemistry·H J EyssenM Piessens-Denef
Nov 1, 1973·Diseases of the Colon and Rectum·N D NigroC Chomchai
Jan 1, 1974·British Poultry Science·D J Ford
Jan 1, 1974·Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture·J W Czerkawski
Jun 1, 1974·Archives of Environmental Health·H al-Shahristani, K M Shihab
May 1, 1974·Diseases of the Colon and Rectum·C ChomchaiN D Nigro
Jul 1, 1971·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·G T Bryan
Jan 1, 1971·Annual Review of Biochemistry·H Greenfield, G M Briggs
Oct 1, 1971·Infection and Immunity·D C SavageC P Davis
Jul 1, 1971·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·M Mitchard
Mar 1, 1967·Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine·M SpatzG L Laqueur
May 1, 1970·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·M WinitzJ A Hamilton
Dec 1, 1970·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·H O Conn, M H Floch
Nov 1, 1971·Journal of Medical Microbiology·G HawksworthM J Hill
Jul 1, 1971·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·R Walker, A J RYAN
Jan 1, 1972·Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin·M AsahinaK Watanabe
Oct 1, 1971·The Journal of Nutrition·T YoshidaB S Wostmann
Sep 1, 1969·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·P GrassoS D Gangolli
Feb 1, 1970·Nihon juigaku zasshi. The Japanese journal of veterinary science·Y Morishita, M Ogata
Oct 1, 1970·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·R WalkerI F Gaunt
Dec 1, 1970·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·R Walker
Jan 1, 1970·Biochemical Pharmacology·J WeisburgerE K Weisburger
Jan 1, 1970·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·S IshiyamaM Okui
May 1, 1971·Archives of Environmental Health·T Norseth, T W Clarkson
Aug 1, 1968·The American Journal of Physiology·H C Dang, W J Visek
Dec 1, 1968·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·P Grasso, L Golberg
Jan 1, 1966·International Journal of Neuropharmacology·A H Friedman, R L Ringel
Apr 1, 1966·Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine·B S Wostmann, E Bruckner-Kardoss
May 16, 1981·Lancet·J R Thornton
Jun 1, 1983·The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society·C A BaileC L McLaughlin
Mar 1, 1980·International Journal of Epidemiology·P FraserM J Hill
Dec 1, 1980·Biochemical Pharmacology·R L KochP Goldman
Dec 15, 1980·FEBS Letters·M Axelson, K D Setchell
Jun 1, 1981·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·H P GlauertC H Sander
Oct 1, 1981·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·P A Judd, A S Truswell
Jan 1, 1982·The Journal of Nutrition·F R EhleP J Van Soest
May 1, 1982·The British Journal of Nutrition·M Nyman, N G Asp
Feb 1, 1982·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·A WiseI R Rowland
Jan 1, 1983·The Journal of Nutrition·S Y Shiau, G W Chang
Feb 1, 1983·Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association·I R RowlandA K Mallett
Apr 1, 1983·Archives of Toxicology·A K MallettI R Rowland
Jul 1, 1983·British Journal of Cancer·W van DokkumR J Hermus
Jul 1, 1983·Toxicology·D L ArnoldI C Munro
Sep 1, 1983·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·A K MallettI R Rowland
Aug 1, 1983·Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology·C Tanaka, Y Nozaki
Aug 1, 1983·Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology·C TanakaY Nozaki
Feb 1, 1984·Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association·A WiseA K Mallett
Apr 3, 1981·Science·L C GreenP Goldman
Feb 27, 1981·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·W NieuwenhuizenF Haverkate
Jun 1, 1984·Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association·A K MallettI R Rowland
Jan 1, 1984·Nutrition and Cancer·A K MallettA Wise
Apr 1, 1983·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·I R RowlandE Bailey
Jan 1, 1983·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·A K MallettA Wise
Jun 1, 1983·Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association·R L Anderson
Jan 1, 1984·The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society·J H Cummings
Jan 1, 1984·The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society·O M Wrong, A J Vince
Nov 1, 1982·Carbohydrate Research·T Tsuchiya
Jan 1, 1982·Toxicology·J K Chipman
Feb 1, 1980·Journal of the National Cancer Institute·B R GoldinS L Gorbach
Aug 1, 1980·European Journal of Clinical Investigation·H Dowling
Mar 1, 1983·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·A H RossD M Anderson
Jul 12, 1983·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·K M Botham, G S Boyd
Jan 1, 1983·Nutrition and Cancer·A WiseI R Rowland
Aug 1, 1980·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·G TamuraB N Ames
Jan 1, 1980·Archives of Toxicology. Supplement. = Archiv Für Toxikologie. Supplement·D W BleylF K Grütte
Oct 1, 1981·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·E J Kuzniar, S P James
Nov 1, 1980·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·V D Bokkenheuser, J Winter
Aug 1, 1980·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·R L Anderson, J J Kirkland
Jan 1, 1981·The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society·I R Rowland
Jan 1, 1980·British Medical Bulletin·M J Hill
Jan 1, 1981·Environmental Mutagenesis·M NagaoT Sugimura
Dec 1, 1981·Mutation Research·D B CouchD J Abernethy
Jan 1, 1982·The International Journal of Biochemistry·A Ota
May 1, 1982·Canadian Journal of Microbiology·M Brockett, G W Tannock
May 1, 1982·Veterinary Research Communications·A C Beynen, M J Geelen
Jan 1, 1982·Mutation Research·D J Abernethy, D B Couch
Jan 28, 1982·Nature·J C MirsalisB E Butterworth
Jun 1, 1982·Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences·G McGlincheyW J Spillane
Jul 1, 1982·British Poultry Science·Y MorishitaM E Coates
Dec 1, 1982·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·L Montgomery, J M Macy
Jan 1, 1982·Microbiology and Immunology·T KinouchiY Ohnishi
Dec 1, 1982·Journal of Steroid Biochemistry·J WinterV D Bokkenheuser
Oct 1, 1981·Journal of Applied Toxicology : JAT·I R Rowland, M J Davies
Nov 1, 1981·Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et Métabolisme·H K KleyH Peerenboom
Apr 9, 1981·The New England Journal of Medicine·I H AndersonM D Levitt
Jan 23, 1981·Science·R L KockP Goldman
Jul 1, 1981·Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology·D E RickertJ G Dent
Nov 13, 1981·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·U MatsukuraH Kato
Jan 1, 1980·Reproduction, Nutrition, Development·C DemignéY Rayssiguier
Mar 15, 1980·Cancer·R F GomezN Rockowitz
Jul 1, 1980·The Journal of Nutrition·J G Elliott, P A Lachance
May 1, 1980·Journal of Medical Microbiology·A J Vince, S M Burridge
Mar 1, 1980·Journal of Steroid Biochemistry·P JärvenpääH Adlercreutz
Apr 1, 1980·Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition·H Z HillG J Hill
Jan 1, 1981·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·M LipkinL Schechter
Mar 1, 1957·Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine·B E GUSTAFSSONA NORMAN
May 15, 1957·Klinische Wochenschrift·H EHRHART, W STICH
Oct 1, 1958·Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine·W F DUNNING, M R CURTIS
Sep 1, 1961·Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology·H C GRICEM G ALLMARK
Jul 1, 1964·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·W A MANNELL
Oct 1, 1964·Food and Cosmetics Toxicology·R JONESS E WRIGHT
Mar 12, 1965·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·R T WILLIAMSR L SMITH
May 1, 1955·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·J MELNYKOWYCZ, K R JOHANSSON
May 1, 1983·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·J B Russell

Citations

Oct 6, 2010·The British Journal of Nutrition·M B RoberfroidAgnes Meheust
Nov 1, 1994·The Journal of Dairy Research·G PerdigónJ C Valdez
Jun 1, 2012·Animal Health Research Reviews·Seema HoodaKelly S Swanson
Mar 1, 2007·European Journal of Clinical Nutrition·Vicky De PreterK Verbeke
Nov 1, 1988·The British Journal of Nutrition·A K MallettC Berry
Sep 7, 2002·The British Journal of Nutrition·C I R Gill, I R Rowland
Jan 1, 1994·Nutrition Research Reviews·I T JohnsonS R Musk
Jan 1, 1989·Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition·J O'Brien, P A Morrissey
Jan 1, 1992·Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition·C J Rumney, I R Rowland
Oct 22, 2011·American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology·Henrike M HamerKristin Verbeke
Feb 4, 2010·Environmental Health Perspectives·Hiromi IshitobiBernard Weiss
Nov 2, 2011·Environmental Health Perspectives·Suzanne M Snedeker, Anthony G Hay
Mar 9, 2011·Cell Biology and Toxicology·Kevin J RandallJohn R Foster
Jul 25, 2009·Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society·Ian M CarrollDeborah S Threadgill
Dec 1, 1994·The Journal of Applied Bacteriology·J ChangC E Autry
Aug 1, 1992·The Journal of Applied Bacteriology·W E Brennan-CraddockS Neale
Jun 6, 1998·Experimental Gerontology·A L HendersonC E Cerniglia
Mar 1, 1992·The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology·C J ArtsJ H Thijssen
Jul 1, 1994·European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics·M Mikov
May 19, 2000·Toxicology Letters·R Suter-EichenbergerM Schlumpf
Jan 12, 2000·Toxicology Letters·R Suter-EichenbergerM Schlumpf
Jan 1, 1990·Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA·C A BearneW E Brennan-Craddock
Jan 1, 1987·Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA·T M CouttsI R Rowland
Nov 2, 2011·International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition·Shunsuke InoguchiTomohiko Fujisawa
Jan 1, 1988·Drug Metabolism Reviews·I R Rowland
Jan 25, 2014·Physiological and Biochemical Zoology : PBZ·Graham A J Worthy, Tamara A M Worthy
Mar 23, 2010·Anaerobe·Kenji ShinoharaTomohiko Fujisawa
Aug 27, 2010·Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis·Lynnette R Ferguson
May 1, 1989·The Journal of Applied Bacteriology·A K MallettI R Rowland
Mar 28, 2006·Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP·Agnès Perrin-GuyomardMary Bartholomew
Jun 1, 1986·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·I R RowlandM J Farthing
Feb 8, 2007·FEMS Microbiology Ecology·Alexandra J Scupham
Jan 1, 1988·Toxicologic Pathology·I R Rowland
Jan 29, 2014·Preventive Nutrition and Food Science·Hyeun Sung SongInshik Park
May 4, 2006·Molecular Nutrition & Food Research·Kieran M TuohyJennifer M Ames
Jan 1, 1987·Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. Supplement·A K MallettM J Farthing
Aug 1, 1997·Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences·T W Clarkson
Apr 1, 1993·Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems·E M Kenyon, E J Calabrese
Nov 25, 2017·Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics·M KanekoY Matsumoto
Sep 1, 1997·Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition·H MykkänenO Hänninen
Sep 1, 1998·Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology·Ronald G ThurmanRonald P Mason
Jan 1, 1991·Die Nahrung·D W Bleyl
Oct 6, 2016·Molecular and Clinical Oncology·Alphons J M VermorkenYali Cui
Nov 27, 2004·Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism·Isabel Goñi

Related Concepts

Azo Compounds
Bile Salts
Tumor Promoters
Epicholesterol
Diet
Gastrointestinal System
Feces
Glucuronic Acids
Glycosides
Lignin

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

The Tendon Seed Network

Tendons are rich in the extracellular matrix and are abundant throughout the body providing essential roles including structure and mobility. The transcriptome of tendons is being compiled to understand the micro-anatomical functioning of tendons. Discover the latest research pertaining to the Tendon Seed Network here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Incretins

Incretins are metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in glucose levels in the blood and they have been implicated in glycemic regulation in the remission phase of type 1 diabetes. Here is the latest research.

Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks

The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.

Long COVID-19

“Long Covid-19” describes illness in patients who are reporting long-lasting effects of the SARS-CoV-19 infection, often long after they have recovered from acute Covid-19. Ongoing health issues often reported include low exercise tolerance and breathing difficulties, chronic tiredness, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. This feed follows the latest research into Long Covid.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.